Ques. 1 What is Normal labour in case of pregnancy?
Ans. NORMAL LABOUR – It is the process of the expulsion of the mature foetus at term presented by anterior position (L.O.A. or R.O.A.) where the process is spontaneous, uncomplicated and unduly prolonged (within 24 hours), with (episiotomy) or without minimum surgical aid.
Ques. 2 What is Abnormal labour?
Ans. Abnormal labour or Dystocia – This is one in which 1. The fetus is presented by vertex but there is some complication either of maternal or of fetal origin. 2. The fetus is presented by some part other than vertex.
Labour – It is process of expulsion of the foetus after the stage of viability via per naturalis.
- Position – It is the relation of denominator to the different quadrants of the pelvis, i.e. L.O.A., R.O.A. etc.
- Engagement – Engagement of the presentation occurs when the maximum transverse diameter of it passes the pelvic brim.
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- Sign of true labor – Show. 2. Dilatation of the os. 3. Formation of bag of water. 4. Painful, rhythmic uterine contraction.
- Presentation – It means any foetal pole which presents before the pelvic brim, i.e. Cephalic, Podalic or Shoulder.
- Asynclitism – When the head flexes to the right or left, the sagittal suture approaches symphysis of the sacrum, the situation is referred to as asynclition. Depending upon direction of flexion towards or away from the sacrum.
- Show – This is a discharge of blood stained mucous per vagina, due to expulsion of cervical mucous plug and blood from separated membranes from the lower uterine segment.
- LIE – It is the relation of the long foetal axis to that of maternal spine, i.e(iii) contracted pelvis ;
- Foetus – From 8th week upto birth at term.
Ques. 3 Explain the mortality or death rate in pregnancy?
Ans. The mortality or death rate in pregnancy are-
Ques. 4 What should be the diet in pregnancy?
Ans. Diet in pregnancy – Cow’s milk –Pint, fish or meat – 60 g. at least, egg- one, orange/mousumbe, apple, banana, green leafy vegetables along with usual carbohydrate plus vitamins and minerals.
Ques. 5 What is colostrum? What are its functions?
Ans. Colostrum, and its composition– It is a yellowith fluid secretion which appears in breasts during pregnancy and after labour, persists for 2 to 3 days after delivery. Composition – Protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals and colostrums corpuscles.
Functions – (1) help to pass meconium for the first and second days thus acting like a purgative. (2) Gives immunity to the baby :
Ques. 6 What is the importance of Balanced diet in pregnancy?
Ans. Importance of a well Balanced Diet during pregnancy –
- To initiate lactation successfully.
Rooming in plan – This is a system of keeping the baby in its cot at the bed side of the mother for the greater part of 24 hours.
Umbilical cord – This is the structure connecting the body of the fetus with the placenta and carries fetal blood to and from placenta. Umbilical cord is about 50 cm. long and is usually eccentrically attached to fetal surface of the placenta. It consists of a large vein and two thick muscular walled arteries. The vein carries oxygenated blood from the placenta to fetus, white two umbilical arteries which originate from the hypogastric arteries of fetus carry deoxygenated blood from fetus to placenta.
Ques. 7 What is obstructed labour?
Ans. Obstructed labour – This means difficult labor due to insuperable mechanism obstructed in the process of delivery of fetus through passage. There are various conditions in which this obstruction occurs.
- Faults passage – Bony passage (brim contraction in generally contracted, flat or osteomalacic pelvis etc.) Soft tissue – cervical fibroid, impacted ovarian cyst, cervical stenosis.
- Fault in passenger (fetal cause), such as – Brow presentation, face presentation with backward rotation of the chin, breech presentation with extended leg, locked twins etc. Fetal anomalies, e.g., hydrocephalus, abdominal tumour, double monsters, large baby etc.
- Faults in power; constriction ring.
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