Ques. 1 What is Normal labour in case of pregnancy?
Ans. NORMAL LABOUR – It is the process of the expulsion of the mature foetus at term presented by anterior position (L.O.A. or R.O.A.) where the process is spontaneous, uncomplicated and unduly prolonged (within 24 hours), with (episiotomy) or without minimum surgical aid.
Ques. 2 What is Abnormal labour?
Ans. Abnormal labour or Dystocia – This is one in which 1. The fetus is presented by vertex but there is some complication either of maternal or of fetal origin. 2. The fetus is presented by some part other than vertex.
Labour – It is process of expulsion of the foetus after the stage of viability via per naturalis.
- Position – It is the relation of denominator to the different quadrants of the pelvis, i.e. L.O.A., R.O.A. etc.
- Engagement – Engagement of the presentation occurs when the maximum transverse diameter of it passes the pelvic brim.
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- Foetus – From 8th week upto birth at term.
Ques. 3 Explain the mortality or death rate in pregnancy?
Ans. The mortality or death rate in pregnancy are-
- Maternal mortality rate – It means number of such maternal deaths per 100 viable births for the year.
- Maternal mortality – It means death of any women dying of any cause while pregnant of within 42 days of termination of pregnancy irrespective of duration and site of pregnancy.
- Perinatal Mortality – It mean number of still births plus first week deaths of babies weighting 1000 grams or more at birth.
- Still birth – It means the condition of the newborn at birth (weight 1000 gram or more) which after its complete birth does not show any sign of life. Still birth rate – It is the number of still birth per 1000 total births.
- Neonatal Death – It mean death of babies within first 4 weeks of life.
- Neonatal Period – First 4 week of extra uterine life of the infant during which anatomical and physiological re-adjustments take place.
- Total calories required during pregnancy & labor – During pregnancy : 2,500 Kcal/day and during lactation : 3,000 keal/day.
- Viable foetus – A foetus called viable when it is able to lead a separate existence after its birth. Age of viability – and 28th By this time a foetus measures 14” in length and 3 Ibs by weight.
- Perinatal mortality rate – It means total number of still births and first week deaths per 1000 total births.
Ques. 4 What should be the diet in pregnancy?
Ans. Diet in pregnancy – Cow’s milk –Pint, fish or meat – 60 g. at least, egg- one, orange/mousumbe, apple, banana, green leafy vegetables along with usual carbohydrate plus vitamins and minerals.
Ques. 5 What is colostrum? What are its functions?
Ans. Colostrum, and its composition– It is a yellowith fluid secretion which appears in breasts during pregnancy and after labour, persists for 2 to 3 days after delivery. Composition – Protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals and colostrums corpuscles.
Functions – (1) help to pass meconium for the first and second days thus acting like a purgative. (2) Gives immunity to the baby :
Ques. 6 What is the importance of Balanced diet in pregnancy?
Ans. Importance of a well Balanced Diet during pregnancy –
- To maintain the maternal health.
- To provide physical strength and vitality during labor.
- To initiate lactation successfully.
- To reduce the incidence of abortion, stillbirths and neonatal deaths.
- To meet the need of the growing fetus.
Rooming in plan – This is a system of keeping the baby in its cot at the bed side of the mother for the greater part of 24 hours.
Umbilical cord – This is the structure connecting the body of the fetus with the placenta and carries fetal blood to and from placenta. Umbilical cord is about 50 cm. long and is usually eccentrically attached to fetal surface of the placenta. It consists of a large vein and two thick muscular walled arteries. The vein carries oxygenated blood from the placenta to fetus, white two umbilical arteries which originate from the hypogastric arteries of fetus carry deoxygenated blood from fetus to placenta.
Ques. 7 What is obstructed labour?
Ans. Obstructed labour – This means difficult labor due to insuperable mechanism obstructed in the process of delivery of fetus through passage. There are various conditions in which this obstruction occurs.
- Faults passage – Bony passage (brim contraction in generally contracted, flat or osteomalacic pelvis etc.) Soft tissue – cervical fibroid, impacted ovarian cyst, cervical stenosis.
- Fault in passenger (fetal cause), such as – Brow presentation, face presentation with backward rotation of the chin, breech presentation with extended leg, locked twins etc. Fetal anomalies, e.g., hydrocephalus, abdominal tumour, double monsters, large baby etc.
- Faults in power; constriction ring.
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