Ques : 1 Describe Anaemaia?
Ans : A simple clinical approach to the diagnosis of a patient with anaemia is to keep in mind that the condition results from one of the 3 following causes, though more than one may be present : -
- Excessive destruction of red cells.
- Loss of blood, which may be acute or chronic.
- Diminished production of normal red cells by the normal mechanism promoting erythropoiesis or deficiency of factors required for the maturation of the red cells.
It cannot be emphasized too strongly that the aetiology of anemia in the tropics shows great variation from one country to another, and effective management can only follow the clear appreciation of local patterns of disease, nutrition and social custom. In many tropical countries anaemia is common and often severe. This is largely explained by high frequency of protozoal helminthic and bacterial infections and the pre valence of malnutrition.
Hundreds of such patients are encountered for every case of megaloblastic anaemia, haemolytic anaemia or pancytopenia. Blood loss results in loss of iron from the body with a consequent deficiency of haemoglobin synthesis. In more detailed classification of anaemias it must be remembered that these resulting from iron deficiency constitute by far the largest group and it is thus logical to deal with them first.
Ques : 2 What Changes occur in Anaemia?
Ans : It is a condition of qualitative of quantitative reduction of circulating R.B.C. and/or of percentage of hemoglobin concentration in relation to standard age and sex. (Normal hemoglobin is 14.6 gm. Per 100 c.c. of blood).
- Clinically –
- Severe (below 7.5 gm%).
- Mild (upto 10 gm%)
- Moderate (upto 7.5gm%),
- Pathologically –
III. Colour Index –
Ques : 3 What can be the causes of anaemia?
Ans : (1) Deficiency –
- C or Thyroxine, etc.
- Vitamin B 1 2,
- Folic acid,
(2) Hemolytic anemia – due to : Drugs, heavy metals, toxins and mismatched blood transfusion, etc.
(3) Hemorrhagic – Piles. Hookworm and Peptic ulcer, etc.
(4) Uncertain origin – as in chronic nephritis, uraemia rheumatoid arthritis.
(5) Hypoplastic and aplastic : Due to – irradiation, toxic druge, hypersplenism, infection or due to idiopathic causes etc.
Clinical Pictures : General – (a) Dyspna. (b) Dizziness, (c) Palpitation, (d) Fainting, (e) Lethergy, (f) Giddiness, (g) Weakness,
On Examination – (1) Features of malnutrition, (2) Low volume pulse, (3) Tachycardia, (4) Functional systolic murmur, (5) pallor, (6) Dyspnoea and oedema of the ankles.
Investigations : (a) Bone marrow test. (b) Blood examinations,
Treatment : (1) Homoeopathic drugs. (2) Bed rest. (3) Blood transfusion, if Hb is below 4 gm%. (4) A palatable diet rich in protein, iron and Vit. C.
Ques :4 Which Homoeopathic medicines are useful in anaemia ?
Ans : (1) CINCHONA- Debility from exhausting discharges, from loss off vital fluids, nervous depression. Anaemia due to blood loss, apathetic indifferent. Blue colour around eyes, night blindness in anemic retina.
(2) FERRUM MET. – Paleness or earthiness of face and puffiness of extremities, anemic, murmur in the veins of neck, easily exhausted. Vomiting of food after eating, Hectic fever and constantly chilly. Irritability, slight noises unbearable.
(3) NATRUM MUR- Paleness, emaciation throbbing headache and dyspnea, constipation and depression of spirits and consolation aggravates. Palpitation, fluttering and intermittent action of heart, scanty menstruation. Craving for salt.
(4) CALCAREA CARB – “Green sickness”, chlorosis of young girls, complexion like wax, alabaster lips and ears, a bright eys. Disgust for meet and craving for sour and indigestible things, swelling of the abdomen, worried, vertigo.
(5) PULSATILLA – Chloro-anaemic women, always complaining of feeling chilly and still feeling better in the fresh air; feels worn out, all tissues relaxed; peevish, but not irascible; slow, phlegmatic temperament.
(6) ARSENICUM- Pernicious anaemia ; debility from overtaxing muscular tissues by prolonged exertion; extreme restlessness and fear of death. Disintegration of the vital forces; violent and irregular palpitations with marked appetite for acids or brandy ; emaciation, wants to be in a warm room.
Ques : 5 Which Biochemic Remedies work well in Anaemia?
And : (1) CALC. PHOS. – Pernicious anaemia, vertigo when getting up or on rising from sitting ; eyes misty ; point of the nose cold ; pale face, sallow, yellowish, earthy ; cold sweat on the face ; body cold ; foul taste and smell ; tongue white, nausea and vomiting ; empty, sinking sensation at the epigastrium ; watery looseness of the bowels, with urging after stools day or night ; urine with sediment.
(2) KALI PHOS. – Cerebral anaemia, anaemic conditions of the brain causing undue nervousness. Spinal anaemia, from exhausting diseases, such as diphtheria, reflex paraplegia and aching pains worse by rest, but most manifest on beginning to move about.
(3) SILICEA- Anaemia in infants, when improperly nourished ; thin, delicate and puny ; inter currently with other remedies indicated.
(4) FERRUM PHOS. – After the new blood cells have been supplied by Calc. phos., if there still appears to be a deficiency of hemoglobin.
(5) NATRUM MUR. – Chlorosis in young girls, with dead dirty skin, frequent palpitation, oppression and anxiety in the chest. Morning cough, easily fatigued. Anaemia from loss of fluids; malarious cachexia ; emaciation.