Ques. 1 What is Blood?
Ans. Blood is an opaque, rather viscid fluid, of a bright red or scarlet colour when it flows from arteries, of a dark red or purple colour when it flows the veins. It is salty to taste and alkaline in reaction, the pH of arterial blood ranging from 7.39 to 7.44. Its specific gravity is 1.055 to 1.066 and its temperature is generally about 37C.
Blood may be defined as a specialized connective tissue in which there is liquid intercellular substance known as plasma & formed elements, the red blood cells, the white blood cells & the platelets suspended in the plasma.
It is the fluid which acts as common nutritive medium by conveying food materials and oxygen to all tissues of body. It receives waste products of metabolic activities of tissues and carries them away to excretory organs, such as lungs and kidneys, by which they are eliminated.
Ques. 2 What are the Chief functions of blood?
Ans. The Chief functions of blood are :-
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ii. Maintenance of water balance – Blood maintains the normal water contents of the tissue.
iii. Maintenance of acid-base equilibrium – By its efficient buffering power and with the help of kindny, skin and lungs it helps to maintain a constant reaction of the body.
iv. Maintenance of ion belance between the cells and the surrounding fluid.
vAscorbic acid – 0.4 to 1 mg/100 ml. Ammonium – 40 to 80mg / 100 ml. Pyruvic acid (fasting) – 35 to 80 mo1 / 1.Sodium – 132 to 14 meq/ 1.
j) Triglyceride (fasting) – 40 to 140 mg /100 ml.
k) Urea – 15 to 40 mg/ 100 ml.
l) Uric acid – 2 to 7 mg / 100 ml.
m) Total protein – 6 to 8 gm/ 100 ml.
n) Albumin – 3 to 5 gm/ 100 ml.
Ques. 10 What are the functions of plasma proteins?
Ans. Functions of plasma proteins :
a) They act as buffer substances ; and (i) help to preserve the reaction of the blood ; and (ii) aid in the transport of CO2
b) A complex of albumin and globulin takes part in immune reaction and helps in the defence processes of the body.
c) It has proved that the plasma proteins have involved in the body general metabolic pool of amino-acide.
d) The plasma proteins serve as a store-house of proteins from which the tissue can draw during starvation or inadequate protein diet.
e) Protein regulates the sedimentation rate. If fibrinogen and globulin concentration is high, the sedimentation rate is increased. It has got clinical importance.
f) Plasma protein helps in the transport of a number of materials such as lipids, drugs & metals, many of which appear to travel in the blood associated with one or more specific proteins.
g) Fibrinogen and prothrombin are essential for coagulation of blood – Fibrinogen is converted into fibrin when blood is shed and thus help in clotting of blood.
h) They exert and osmotic pressure of about 25 mm. of Hg. It is due to this osmotic pressure that they – (i) retain fluid in the capillaries, and so help to maintain blood volume ; (ii) regulate interchanges between the blood and the tissue spaces ; and (iii) influence filtration of plasma in glomeruli of the kidney.
i) The leucocytes prepare substances from the plasma proteins, called trephines, which are necessary for the nourishment of tissue cells grown in culture.
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