Ques. 1 What is meant by carcinoma of Breast ?
Ans. Carcinoma of breast is the most common lethal cancer of women. The exact cause is unknown, though it seems likely than an abnormal reaction to hormones, principally estrogens, plays a role in genesis of breast cancer. However it. Is not possible by hormone tests to identify women who may be susceptible on this basis.
- The spread of breast cancer is principally by metastasis to the regional lymph nodes. Haematogenous spread of mammary carcinoma is common – Dissemination to the pelvis, spine, femur, humerus, skull, liver or lungs is frequent. Breast cancer is also manifested clinically as a firm of hard, nontender, fixed mass of lump with ill-defined margins.
- A familial predisposition to breast cancer is recognised and cancer tends to occur at an early age in such families.
Ques. 2 What are the types of Breast carcinoma?
Ans. Principally 4 varieties of breast cancer –
- Adenocarcinoma – This cancer is soft and voluminous.
- Intraductal carcinoma- It grows along and within lactiferous ducts (2 types- Intraductal papillary carcinoma and intra-ductal comedocarcinoma).
- Scirrhous carcinoma- This is a hard, irregular, unencapsulated adherent nodule whose cut surface is grayish and translucent.
- Medullary carcinoma – This is a soft bulky tumor with a propensity to ulcerate and form a fungating surface ulceration.
Ques. 3 What are the clinical findings of this disease?
Ans. CLINICAL FINDINGS –
- Examination of the breast should be methodical, meticulous, and delicate; initially, careful inspection and palpation should be done.
- X-Ray Findings : Mammography – Great helpful in the diagnosis of breast cancer.
- Biopsy – Breast biopsy is indicated in cases of persistent breast mass, bloody nipple discharge, eczematous nipple changes and suspicious or positive mammography.
- A painless lump is the initial finding in the great majority of cases of breast cancer.
- Nipple discharge or ulceration, itching, retraction, or pain is occasionally reported.
Ques. 4 Can we prevent Breast carcinoma?
Ans. Prevention – Because the cause is unknown and probably multiple, prevention is not possible. Death can be postponed and serious complications partially and completely avoided by early diagnosis and prompt therapy.
Ques. 5 How can the breast carcinoma case be managed?
Ans. MANAGEMENT –
- Radiation therapy.
- Surgical – (i) Simple mastectomy. (ii) Standard radical mastectomy (iii) Modified radical mastectomy
Prognosis - Evidence is mounting that breast cancer is systemic as well as a neoplastic disease and that prognosis is therefore closely related to cell-mediated immune defenses against the tumor.
Ques. 6 Which Homoeopathic medicines can be useful in this case?
Ans. Homoeopathic remedies –
- GRAPHITES – If developed from old cicatrices formed from repeated abscesses in the mammae.
- KREOSOTE – The whole mammary gland is hard, bluish-red and covered with little scurfy protuberances, from which blood oozes out whenever the scurf is removed.
- LACHESIS – The cancer has a bluish or dark red base, interspersed with black streaks of coagulated or decomposed blood.
- APIS MELL – Induration; scirrhous, or open cancers, attended with ‘stinging burning’ pains.
- ARSENIC ALB – Burning like fire. Putrid exhalations. Waxy paleness, great debility from the cancerous affection. Great loss of flesh.