Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) on cases-of-pregnancy | HospitalKhoj

Cases of Pregnancy

Cases of Pregnancy

Ques. 1 How can pregnancy be diagnosed?

Ans.           Pregnancy is the condition of having a developing embryo of foetus in the body, after union of an ovum and spermatozoon.

The diagnosis of early pregnancy can usually be established with reasonable certainty by careful history and examination even as early as two weeks after first missed period. Difficulty in diagnosis may arise where the date is incorrect, the patient is unduly obese or difficult to examine or when pregnancy is not developing normally.

Ques. 2 Which are the important immunological and Biological tests for pregnancy?

Ans.           The important immunologic and Biological tests for pregnancy -

Immunologic tests for pregnancy

S.No.

Method

Materials

Results

(1)

Directcoagulation

Later particles coated with anti- HCG = (Serum of urine)

Coagulation if HCG is present (pregnant).

 

(2)

Inhibition of coagulation

Anti-HCG + Serum of urine +

(Sensitized red cells or Latex

Particles coated with HCG.)

Coagulation if HCG is absent (not pregnant)

Inhibition if HCG is present (pregnant).

 

 

Biological tests for pregnancy

S.No.

Name

Test animal

End point

Time of test

(1)

Ascheim Zondak

Mice

Corpus lutcum

5 days

(2)

Friedman

Rabbit

Corpus luteum

2 days

(3)

Ovarian hyperemia (beck)

Rat

Hyperemia

12-18 hours

(4)

Frog test (Hogben)

Female

Extrusion of eggs

24 hors

(5)

Toad test (Galli Mainini)

Male

Extrusion of sperm

2 – 5 hours

 

Pregnancy Causes both obvious and subtle changes which involve many organs, systems but are most pronounced in generative system. Because these subjective and objective alterations vary so widely, diagnostic criteria of pregnancy are classified as –

(a) probable, and (b) positive. (c) Presumptive,

Ques. 3 What are the presumptive signs of pregnancy?

Ans.

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CAUSES OF ABORTION DURING EARLY PREGNANCY
         Presumptive, signs of pregnancy –

  1. Leucorrhoea- increased cervical mucus and pronounced exfoliation of vaginal epithelial cells.
  2. Breast changes –enlargement and vascular engorgement of the breast begin; colostrums is produced.
  3. Abdominal enlargement.
  4. Pelvic organ changes – softening of the cervix, cervico-uterine junction etc.
  5. Skin pigmentation and sriage.
  6. Epulis – hypertrophic gingival papillae are often seen after the first trimester of pregnancy.

Ques. 4 What are the probable signs of pregnancy?

Ans.           Probable symptoms of pregnancy – Same as presumptive symptoms. The Probable signs are – Enlargement of uterus; uterine soufflé (bruit); uterine contractions (Braxton Hicks sign), etc.

Ques. 5 What are the positive symptoms of pregnancy?

Ans.          Positive manifestations of pregnancy –

(A) Symptoms – There is no subjective evidence of pregnancy which can be accepted as diagnostic.

(B) Signs – Any one of the following signs is medical and legal proof of pregnancy; viz.

  1. Palpation of fetal outline.
  2. Recognition of fetal movements.
  • X-ray demonstration of fetal skeleton.
  1. Ultrasonography – ultrasound may have its greatest application in obstetrics.
  2. Fetal electrocardiography – can first be recorded about the 84th day of pregnancy.
  3. Auscultation of fetal heart beat; one must be able to hear distinctly and count the foetal heart beat.

The Symptoms & Signs of pregnancy

Appearance (in weeks)

Presumptive evidences : - 1. Amenorrhoea

2

(a)                   Morning sickness

6 to 10

(b)                   Bladder irritability

4 to 6

(c)                   Breast changes

3 to 6

(d)                   Discoloration of vagina

6

(e)                   Skin pigmentation and striae

-

(f)                    Quickening

18

Probable evidences

(i)  Hegar’s sign

8

(ii) Enlargement of uterus

8

(iii) Softening of cervix

8

(iv) Braxton-Hicks contraction

6

(v)  Ballotement

16 to 20

(vi) Fetal parts palpation

16

(vii) Endocrine tests (biological + immunological)

6

(viii) Fetal movement

20 to 24

(ix) FH beat hearing – 18 weeks. 3. Dopper

12 to 14

(x) X-ray of fctus – 16 weeks. 5. Sonographic

8

 

QuesBad taste in mouth every morning on waking. No kind of food tastes good. Diarrhoea, mostly at night. Mild, teaful disposition.

  • Berberis – She dreads all downward motions. Bitter taste of everything, even of the saliva, distension with flatulence after every meal.
  • Colchicum – Loathing and disgust is esp. repugnant. All attempts to eat cause violent nausea and vomiting.
  • Ipecac – Nausea and vomiting, with great uneasiness in the stomach. Continual nausea all time, not a moment’s relief. Vomiting large quantities of mucous. Bilious vomiting and tendency to relaxation of bowels.
  • Antim Crud – Eructation tasting of ingesta. Nausea, with vertigo. Frightful and persistent vomiting, with convulsion; after overloading stomach.
  • Sepia – Nausea in morning as if all the viscera were turning inside out. Sensation of emptiness in stomach. The thought of food sickness her. Painful feeling of hunger.
  • Ques. 12 Which are the Biochemic remedies for pregnancy?

    Ans.           Biochemic Remedies –

    1. Natrum Phos – Morning sickness, with vomiting of sour, acid fluids.
    2. Natrum Sulph : Vomiting in pregnancy of bilious matter, and with bitter taste in the mouth.
    3. Natrum Mur – Morning sickness of pregnancy, with watery, frothy vomiting.
    .

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    Comments

    0 # Vivaan 2017-08-15
    Hii, plz tell me,Which tests can confirm syphilis in primary stage, also suggest name of good maternity hospitals in Tirunelveli ?
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    0 # Dr. Naresh 2017-08-16
    During the primary stage,DG illumination tests are very helpful, find good maternity hospitals-Krishna Maternity Home and Pediatric Centre ; Meeran Nursing Home ; Lakshmi Hospitals.
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    0 # Jayesh 2017-07-25
    My friend has been diagnosed with gonorrhoea, Please tell which tests will be advisable, also suggest gynec in Nalbari ?
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    0 # Dr. Naresh 2017-07-26
    VDRL tests should be done every month for 3 consecutive months for detecting syphilis as well as other sexually transmitted diseases,These tests should be conducted at proper times, find good Gynecologist in Nalbari
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    0 # Vivaan 2017-06-01
    Hi, plz let me know What is the incubation period of Syphilis, also give me the list of good female's specialist in Vaishali ?
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    0 # Dr. Pooja 2017-06-02
    Hii, The incubation period can be 10 to 90 days, plz find list of Gynecologist in Vaishali
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    0 # Himmat 2017-05-17
    Hii, I am from Jaipur, I want to know can cigerrete sharing can lead to syphilis ?
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    0 # Dr. Naresh 2017-05-18
    yes,sharing cigerette,drinking cups,common spoons etc can also lead to syphilis, Generally whenever the fluid of a person who has syphilis is shared,the infection can occur, you should also consult with good Gynecologist in Jaipur
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    0 # Tushar Older than three months
    Hello I am from Kanchipuram, My neighbour has been feeling redness and burning in urethral organs, can it be a disease, should she visit gynec?
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    0 # Dr. Naresh 2017-05-17
    It can be a simple infection also and a disease also, If after the examination, the presence of gram negative bacteria is seen ,gonorrhoea infection can be thought of, she should visit good women's specialist- find list of Gynecologist in Kanchipuram
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    0 # Priyansh Older than three months
    Hii, I am from Dindori, plz let me know What is gonorrhoea ?
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    0 # Dr. Naresh Older than three months
    Hello, Gonorrhoea is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the Neisseria gonorrhoea,This disease is caused in the genitourinary tracts, for more details plz visit good gynec in Dindori, find list of Gynecologist in Dindori
    Reply | Reply with quote | Quote
    0 # Aayush Older than three months
    Hii, I am from Purulia, plz let me know What is gonorrhoea ?
    Reply | Reply with quote | Quote
    0 # Dr. Naresh Older than three months
    Hello, Gonorrhoea is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the Neisseria gonorrhoea,This disease is caused in the genitourinary tracts, for more details plz visit good gynec in Purulia, find list of Gynecologist in Purulia
    Reply | Reply with quote | Quote
    0 # Aayush Older than three months
    Can gonorrhoea be caused by the infected towels, also provide the list of good gynecologist in Panna?
    Reply | Reply with quote | Quote
    0 # Dr. Naresh Older than three months
    Gonorrhoea can be transmitted by the infected towels, handkerchiefs of the infected person, But most cases are due to sexual contacts, find here list of good Gynecologist in Panna.
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    0 # Tushar Older than three months
    Hii, I am from Dhule, plz let me know What is gonorrhoea ?
    Reply | Reply with quote | Quote
    0 # Dr. Naresh Older than three months
    Hello, Gonorrhoea is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the Neisseria gonorrhoea,This disease is caused in the genitourinary tracts, for more details plz visit good gynec in Dhule, find list of Gynecologist in Dhule
    Reply | Reply with quote | Quote