Ques. 1 How can pregnancy be diagnosed?
Ans. Pregnancy is the condition of having a developing embryo of foetus in the body, after union of an ovum and spermatozoon.
The diagnosis of early pregnancy can usually be established with reasonable certainty by careful history and examination even as early as two weeks after first missed period. Difficulty in diagnosis may arise where the date is incorrect, the patient is unduly obese or difficult to examine or when pregnancy is not developing normally.
Ques. 2 Which are the important immunological and Biological tests for pregnancy?
Ans. The important immunologic and Biological tests for pregnancy -
Immunologic tests for pregnancy
Biological tests for pregnancy
Time of test
Ovarian hyperemia (beck)
Frog test (Hogben)
Extrusion of eggs
Toad test (Galli Mainini)
Extrusion of sperm
2 – 5 hours
Pregnancy Causes both obvious and subtle changes which involve many organs, systems but are most pronounced in generative system. Because these subjective and objective alterations vary so widely, diagnostic criteria of pregnancy are classified as –
(a) probable, and (b) positive. (c) Presumptive,
Ques. 3 What are the presumptive signs of pregnancy?
- Leucorrhoea- increased cervical mucus and pronounced exfoliation of vaginal epithelial cells.
- Breast changes –enlargement and vascular engorgement of the breast begin; colostrums is produced.
- Abdominal enlargement.
- Pelvic organ changes – softening of the cervix, cervico-uterine junction etc.
- Skin pigmentation and sriage.
- Epulis – hypertrophic gingival papillae are often seen after the first trimester of pregnancy.
Ques. 4 What are the probable signs of pregnancy?
Ans. Probable symptoms of pregnancy – Same as presumptive symptoms. The Probable signs are – Enlargement of uterus; uterine soufflé (bruit); uterine contractions (Braxton Hicks sign), etc.
Ques. 5 What are the positive symptoms of pregnancy?
Ans. Positive manifestations of pregnancy –
(A) Symptoms – There is no subjective evidence of pregnancy which can be accepted as diagnostic.
(B) Signs – Any one of the following signs is medical and legal proof of pregnancy; viz.
- X-ray demonstration of fetal skeleton.
The Symptoms & Signs of pregnancy
Appearance (in weeks)
Presumptive evidences : - 1. Amenorrhoea
(a) Morning sickness
6 to 10
(b) Bladder irritability
4 to 6
(c) Breast changes
3 to 6
(d) Discoloration of vagina
(e) Skin pigmentation and striae
(i) Hegar’s sign
(ii) Enlargement of uterus
(iii) Softening of cervix
(iv) Braxton-Hicks contraction
16 to 20
(vi) Fetal parts palpation
(vii) Endocrine tests (biological + immunological)
(viii) Fetal movement
20 to 24
(ix) FH beat hearing – 18 weeks. 3. Dopper
12 to 14
(x) X-ray of fctus – 16 weeks. 5. Sonographic
QuesBad taste in mouth every morning on waking. No kind of food tastes good. Diarrhoea, mostly at night. Mild, teaful disposition.
Ques. 12 Which are the Biochemic remedies for pregnancy? Ans. Biochemic Remedies –
Ques. 12 Which are the Biochemic remedies for pregnancy?
Ans. Biochemic Remedies –