Ques. 1 How can pregnancy be diagnosed?
Ans. Pregnancy is the condition of having a developing embryo of the foetus in the body, after the union of an ovum and spermatozoon.
The diagnosis of early pregnancy can usually be established with reasonable certainty by careful history and examination even as early as two weeks after first missed a period. Difficulty in diagnosis may arise where the date is incorrect; the patient is unduly obese or difficult to examine or when pregnancy is not developing normally.
Ques. 2 Which are the important immunological and Biological tests for pregnancy?
Ans. The important immunologic and Biological tests for pregnancy -
Immunologic Tests for Pregnancy
(1)DirectcoagulationLater particles coated with anti- HCG = (Serum of urine) Coagulation if HCG is present (pregnant).
(2)Inhibition of coagulationAnti-HCG + Serum of urine +(Sensitized red cells or latex particles coated with HCG.) Coagulation if HCG is absent (not pregnant) Inhibition if HCG is present (pregnant).
Biological Tests for pregnancy
Time of test
Ovarian hyperemia (beck)
Frog test (Hogben)
Extrusion of eggs
Toad test (Galli Mainini)
Extrusion of sperm
2 – 5 hours
Pregnancy Causes both obvious and subtle changes which involve many organs, systems but are most pronounced in the generative system. Because these subjective and objective alterations vary so widely, diagnostic criteria for pregnancy are classified as –
(a) probable, and (b) positive. (c) Presumptive,
Ques. 3 What are the presumptive signs of pregnancy?
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Presumptive, signs of Pregnancy
- Leucorrhoea- increased cervical mucus and pronounced exfoliation of vaginal epithelial cells.
- Breast changes –enlargement and vascular engorgement of the breast begin; colostrums is produced.
- Abdominal enlargement.
- Pelvic organ changes – softening of the cervix, cervical-uterine junction etc.
- Skin pigmentation and triage.
- Epulis – hypertrophic gingival papillae are often seen after the first trimester of pregnancy.
Ques. 4 What are the probable signs of pregnancy?
Ans. Probable symptoms of pregnancy – Same as presumptive symptoms. The Probable signs are – Enlargement of the uterus; uterine soufflé (bruit); uterine contractions (Braxton Hicks sign), etc.
Ques. 5 What are the positive symptoms of pregnancy?
Ans. Positive manifestations of pregnancy –
(A) Symptoms – There is no subjective evidence of pregnancy which can be accepted as diagnostic.
(B) Signs – Any one of the following signs is medical and legal proof of pregnancy; viz.
- Palpation of the fetal outline.
- Recognition of fetal movements.
- X-ray demonstration of fetal skeleton.
- Ultrasonography – ultrasound may have its greatest application in obstetrics.
- Fetal electrocardiography – can first be recorded on the 84th day of pregnancy.
- Auscultation of fetal heartbeat; one must be able to hear distinctly and count the foetal heartbeat.
The Symptoms & Signs of pregnancy
Appearance (in weeks)
Presumptive evidence: - 1. Amenorrhoea
(a) Morning sickness
6 to 10
(b) Bladder irritability
4 to 6
(c) Breast changes
3 to 6
(d) Discoloration of vagina
(e) Skin pigmentation and striae
(i) Hegar’s sign
(ii) Enlargement of uterus
(iii) Softening of cervix
(iv) Braxton-Hicks contraction
16 to 20
(vi) Fetal parts palpation
(vii) Endocrine tests (biological + immunological)
(viii) Fetal movement
20 to 24
(ix) FH beat hearing – 18 weeks. 3. Dopper
12 to 14
(x) X-ray of the fetus – 16 weeks. 5. Sonographic
Quesada tastes in the mouth every morning on waking. No kind of food tastes good. Diarrhoea, mostly at night. Mild, tearful disposition.
- Berberis – She dreads all downward motions. The bitter taste of everything, even of the saliva, distension with flatulence after every meal.
- Colchicum – Loathing and disgust are esp. repugnant. All attempts to eat cause violent nausea and vomiting.
- Ipecac – Nausea and vomiting, with great uneasiness in the stomach. Continual nausea all time, not a moment’s relief. Vomiting large quantities of mucus. Bilious vomiting and tendency to relaxation of bowels.
- Antim Crud – Eructation tasting of ingesta. Nausea, with vertigo. Frightful and persistent vomiting, with convulsion; after overloading stomach.
- Sepia – Nausea in the morning as if all the viscera were turning inside out. The sensation of emptiness in the stomach. The thought of food sickness her. The painful feeling of hunger.
Ques. 12 Which are the Biochemic remedies for pregnancy?
Ans. Biochemic Remedies –
- Natrum Phos – Morning sickness, with vomiting of sour, acid fluids.
- Natrum Sulph: Vomiting in pregnancy of bilious matter, and with the bitter taste in the mouth.
- Natrum Mur – Morning sickness of pregnancy, with watery, frothy vomiting.
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