Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) on cases-of-pregnancy | HospitalKhoj

Cases of Pregnancy

Cases of Pregnancy

Ques. 1 How can pregnancy be diagnosed?

Ans. Pregnancy is the condition of having a developing embryo of the foetus in the body, after the union of an ovum and spermatozoon.

The diagnosis of early pregnancy can usually be established with reasonable certainty by careful history and examination even as early as two weeks after first missed a period. Difficulty in diagnosis may arise where the date is incorrect; the patient is unduly obese or difficult to examine or when pregnancy is not developing normally.

Ques. 2 Which are the important immunological and Biological tests for pregnancy?

Ans. The important immunologic and Biological tests for pregnancy -

Immunologic Tests for Pregnancy

(1)DirectcoagulationLater particles coated with anti- HCG = (Serum of urine) Coagulation if HCG is present (pregnant).

(2)Inhibition of coagulationAnti-HCG + Serum of urine +(Sensitized red cells or latex particles coated with HCG.) Coagulation if HCG is absent (not pregnant) Inhibition if HCG is present (pregnant).

S.No.

Method

Materials

Results


Biological Tests for pregnancy

 

Name

Test animal

Endpoint

Time of test

Ascheim Zondag

Mice

Corpus lum

5 days

Friedman

Rabbit

Corpus luteum

2 days

(3)

Ovarian hyperemia (beck)

Rat

Hyperemia

12-18 hours

(4)

Frog test (Hogben)

Female

Extrusion of eggs

24 hours

(5)

Toad test (Galli Mainini)

Male

Extrusion of sperm

2 – 5 hours

Pregnancy Causes both obvious and subtle changes which involve many organs, systems but are most pronounced in the generative system. Because these subjective and objective alterations vary so widely, diagnostic criteria for pregnancy are classified as –

(a) probable, and (b) positive. (c) Presumptive,

Ques. 3 What are the presumptive signs of pregnancy?

Ans.

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CAUSES OF ABORTION DURING EARLY PREGNANCY

         Presumptive, signs of Pregnancy 

  1. Leucorrhoea- increased cervical mucus and pronounced exfoliation of vaginal epithelial cells.
  2. Breast changes –enlargement and vascular engorgement of the breast begin; colostrums is produced.
  3. Abdominal enlargement.
  4. Pelvic organ changes – softening of the cervix, cervical-uterine junction etc.
  5. Skin pigmentation and triage.
  6. Epulis – hypertrophic gingival papillae are often seen after the first trimester of pregnancy.

Ques. 4 What are the probable signs of pregnancy?

Ans. Probable symptoms of pregnancy – Same as presumptive symptoms. The Probable signs are – Enlargement of the uterus; uterine soufflé (bruit); uterine contractions (Braxton Hicks sign), etc.

Ques. 5 What are the positive symptoms of pregnancy?

Ans.  Positive manifestations of pregnancy –

(A) Symptoms – There is no subjective evidence of pregnancy which can be accepted as diagnostic.

(B) Signs – Any one of the following signs is medical and legal proof of pregnancy; viz.

  • Palpation of the fetal outline.
  • Recognition of fetal movements.
  • X-ray demonstration of fetal skeleton.
  • Ultrasonography – ultrasound may have its greatest application in obstetrics.
  • Fetal electrocardiography – can first be recorded on the 84th day of pregnancy.
  • Auscultation of fetal heartbeat; one must be able to hear distinctly and count the foetal heartbeat.

The Symptoms & Signs of pregnancy

Appearance (in weeks)

Presumptive evidence: - 1. Amenorrhoea

2

(a)                   Morning sickness

6 to 10

(b)                   Bladder irritability

4 to 6

(c)                   Breast changes

3 to 6

(d)                   Discoloration of vagina

6

(e)                   Skin pigmentation and striae

-

(f)                    Quickening

18

Probable evidences

(i)  Hegar’s sign

8

(ii) Enlargement of uterus

(iii) Softening of cervix

(iv) Braxton-Hicks contraction

(v)  Ballottement

16 to 20

(vi) Fetal parts palpation

16

(vii) Endocrine tests (biological + immunological)

(viii) Fetal movement

20 to 24

(ix) FH beat hearing – 18 weeks. 3. Dopper

12 to 14

(x) X-ray of the fetus – 16 weeks. 5. Sonographic

Quesada tastes in the mouth every morning on waking. No kind of food tastes good. Diarrhoea, mostly at night. Mild, tearful disposition.

  • Berberis – She dreads all downward motions. The bitter taste of everything, even of the saliva, distension with flatulence after every meal.
  • Colchicum – Loathing and disgust are esp. repugnant. All attempts to eat cause violent nausea and vomiting.
  • Ipecac – Nausea and vomiting, with great uneasiness in the stomach. Continual nausea all time, not a moment’s relief. Vomiting large quantities of mucus. Bilious vomiting and tendency to relaxation of bowels.
  • Antim Crud – Eructation tasting of ingesta. Nausea, with vertigo. Frightful and persistent vomiting, with convulsion; after overloading stomach.
  • Sepia – Nausea in the morning as if all the viscera were turning inside out. The sensation of emptiness in the stomach. The thought of food sickness her. The painful feeling of hunger.

Ques. 12 Which are the Biochemic remedies for pregnancy?

Ans. Biochemic Remedies –

  • Natrum Phos – Morning sickness, with vomiting of sour, acid fluids.
  • Natrum Sulph: Vomiting in pregnancy of bilious matter, and with the bitter taste in the mouth.
  • Natrum Mur – Morning sickness of pregnancy, with watery, frothy vomiting.
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Comments

# Harikiran 2018-10-16
Can gonorrhoea be caused by the infected towels, also provide the list of good gynecologist in South Goa?
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# Dr. Pooja 2018-10-17
Gonorrhoea can be transmitted by the infected towels, handkerchiefs of the infected person, But most cases are due to sexual contacts, find here list of good Gynecologist in South Goa.
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# Aayush 2018-10-09
Hello, plz let me know Can gonorrhoea be transmitted to small children, should I consult with good maternity doctor in Kannauj
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# Dr. Pooja 2018-10-10
yes,this can be transmitted by infected mothers to children, In this case it is called as ophthalmia neonatorum, find list of good doctor-.Obstetrician in Kannauj
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# Himmat 2018-09-25
Hi, plz let me know What is the incubation period of Syphilis, also give me the list of good female's specialist in Lower Subansiri ?
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# Dr. Pooja 2018-09-26
Hii, The incubation period can be 10 to 90 days, plz find list of Gynecologist in Lower Subansiri
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# Lakshay 2018-09-11
Can gonorrhoea be caused by the infected towels, also provide the list of good gynecologist in Ariyalur?
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# Dr. Naresh 2018-09-12
Gonorrhoea can be transmitted by the infected towels, handkerchiefs of the infected person, But most cases are due to sexual contacts, find here list of good Gynecologist in Ariyalur.
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# Aarush 2018-08-21
Hii, can you plz tell me,What changes can occur in skin in syphilis patient, also suggest good obstertrician in Kolar ?
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# Dr. Pooja 2018-08-22
Rashes can occur on the skin in the near areas,rashes can be discrete and also symmetrical in nature, Rashes can also be pustular, you can consult with Obstetrician in Kolar.
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# Vivaan 2018-08-14
Hello, plz let me know What is menarche, I want to consult with gynec in North Goa, plz suggest ?
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# Dr. Pooja 2018-08-15
the process of starting of the menstrual cycle in females is called menarche, plz find good Gynecologist in North Goa.
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# Himmat 2018-07-31
Hello I am from Thiruvananthapuram, My neighbour has been feeling redness and burning in urethral organs, can it be a disease, should she visit gynec?
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# Dr. Naresh 2018-08-01
It can be a simple infection also and a disease also, If after the examination, the presence of gram negative bacteria is seen ,gonorrhoea infection can be thought of, she should visit good women's specialist- find list of Gynecologist in Thiruvananthapuram
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# Harikiran 2018-07-20
Hii, plz tell me,Which tests can confirm syphilis in primary stage, also suggest name of good maternity hospitals in Bardhaman ?
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# Dr. Pooja 2018-07-21
During the primary stage,DG illumination tests are very helpful, find good maternity hospitals-H L G Memorial Charitable Hospital and Research Institute Private Limited - Bardhaman.
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# Rohan Older than three months
Hii, I am from Phek, can you plz tell me What is the mode of infection in syphilis ?
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# Dr. Naresh Older than three months
90 percent cases in syphilis are transmitted through unsafe sexual contacts, Mothers can also pass infection through breast milk, you can also consult with good Gynecologist in Phek .
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# Vivaan Older than three months
Hii, can you plz tell me,What changes can occur in skin in syphilis patient, also suggest good obstertrician in Bhandara ?
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# Dr. Naresh Older than three months
Rashes can occur on the skin in the near areas,rashes can be discrete and also symmetrical in nature, Rashes can also be pustular, you can consult with Obstetrician in Bhandara.
Reply | Reply with quote | Quote