Ques. 1 What is contraception?
Ans. The word contraception means prevention of conception and any device which is used for purpose may be called a contraceptive.
In order that conception can occur following conditions must be fulfilled –
- The sexual union must occur at certain fertile periods of the women’s menstrual cycle when ovum is present in the fallopian tube. This period is about 4 to 5 days beginning 11th day from first day of the previous menstruation.
- There must be no impediment to the passage of the sperm from the vagina, through cervical and uterine cavity to the uterine orifice of the fallopian tube and then onward along the tube to meet the ova awaiting fertilization.
- The unfertilized ovem must be able to enter the fallopian tube from the peritoneal cavity, where it is discharged by the ovary.
- The fertilized ovum must be able to travel to the uterine cavity.
- The endometrium of the uterus, under the influence of complex hormonal activity must be ready to receive and accept the fertilized ovum.
- There must be sexual union between a man and a woman both of whom have reached the age of puberty and are within the reproductive period of their lives.
- The male partner must be able to deposit semen containing viable sperms in vagina.
Conception will be prevented if any one of above requirements is not fulfilled and interference with one or all of them is basis of contraception.
Ques. 2 What are contraceptives?
Ans. CONTRACEPTIVE – By definition it means all temporary and permanent measures which are applied for preventing pregnancy resulting from coitus is known as contraceptive.
Any woman seeking contraceptive advice should be examined and carefully instructed about kinds, advantage, disadvantages, and use of appropriate methods of contraception and alternatives.
Ques. 3 What is the classification of contraceptive methods?
Ans. CLASSIFICATION – (of Contraceptive methods) –
Physiological Methods – In physiological or natural methods of contraception no appliance or medicine is required and is related to the sex habit of couple or menstrual cycle of wife. Complete abstinence, etc. may be termed as physiological methods.
Total Abstinence is the only real certain way of preventing Conception.
Abstinence During Fertile Phase – This is Rhythm Method or the use of the Safe Period, Which depends upon avoidance of sexual intercourse during the probable dates of ovulation.
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Spermatozoa deposited in the female genital tract may survive for upto 3rd days, so that intercourse which occurs at any time from 9th day to 16th day could theoretically result in conception. The ovum itself may well live for 24 hours, so that intercourse between 9th and 17th day results in a theoretical possibility of pregnancy. The Safe Period is, therefore, calculated from first day of onset of menstruation until 8th day of the cycle and from 18th to onset of menstruation.
In absence of direct and practical methods of observation of the phenomenon of ovulation, women desirous of adopting Rhythm Method of contraception can follow one of three indirect methods. These are –
WITHDRAWAL OR COITUS INTERRUPTUS –Withdrawal of coitus interruptus means discharge of male semen outside female genital organ during the act of intercourse. It is a good method for contraception, if practiced properly, but requires cooperation and harmony sex partners.
Pregnancy rate is 35 per 100 woman year.
CALENDAR METHOD OF OGINO AND KNAUS – Due to rise in hormone level, secretion from the cervix of the uterus increases becomes clear and slippery like egg whitePerinatal, infant and childhood mortality and morbidity;
Main components of M.C.H. –
- Safe delivery services.
- Postnatal care.
- Infant care and toddler care.
- Antenatal care
Five Point M.C.H. Programme – This programme includes of immunization of the infant against T.B., diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough and poliomyelitis. In india, this programme undertaken, as a part of National Family Welfare Programme.
Ques. 8 What instructions will you give to a mother? Regarding feeding of an infant?
Ans. Advice for feeding of an infant – When child is 7 or 8 months old, semi-solid cereals should be given. When child is 12 to 18 months age, the weaning should be complete. At the end of 18 months, a child can digest all foods. Mother’s milk so allowed gives full protection to child. Breast Feeding : Breast milk is the ideal for the infant/baby upto age of 6 months and then the baby should be gradually weaned. When child is of 6 months age, one breast feed should be missed and replaced by cow’s milk.
TIME INTERVAL FOR FEEDING – Average a child requires feeding every 3 hourly. There should not be a fixed and rigid time schedule for feeding child. Feeding should be done whenever the child demands the feed, i.e., hunger crying.
AMOUNT OF MILK – In terms of calories a healthy baby needs about 50 kcal of calories per pound of body weight. A healthy baby requires milk at rate of 2.5 ounces per pound of body weight per day.
ARTIFICIAL FEEDING – Cow, buffalo, goat milk, condensed milk, powder milk etc. are available; cow’s milk is best substitute for mother’s milk. If cow milk is diluted with some water and a little sugar is added, we get a mixture which is a good substitute for breast milk. The main indication for artificial feeding is failure of breast milk, and / or prolonged illness of mother..
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