Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) on kidney-failure | HospitalKhoj

KIDNEY FAILURE

KIDNEY FAILURE

Ques. 1 What is kidney failure?

Ans. Kidney failure or Renal failure is a situation in which the kidneys fail to function adequately. Elevated serum Creatinine is used as a measure of Kidney failure. It is an indicative of the failure of filtering ability of the kidneys.

The typical human reference ranges for Serum Creatinine are 0.5 to 1.0 mg/dL for women and 0.7 to 1.2 mg/dL for men. While a baseline Serum Creatinine of 2.0 mg/dL may indicate normal kidney function in a male body builder, a serum creatinine of 1.2 mg/dL can indicate significant renal disease in an elderly female.

Serum Creatinine is produced naturally by the body, which is the breakdown of Creatine Phosphate found in muscles. Thus, a person with higher muscle mass may have higher Serum Creatinine levels without any kidney failure, whereas a person with low muscle mass may be suffering with the Kidney failure even at low levels of Serum Cretinine.
Broadly there are three types of Kidney/Renal failures –
(1) Acute-on-Chronic Renal Failure (AoCRF)
(2) Acute Kidney Injury (AKI)
(3) Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)

Ques. 2 Describe Acute kidney failure.

Ans. Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) was also known as Acute Renal Failure (ARF) earlier.

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It is a rapid progressive loss of renal function, which can be characterized by decreased urine production (Oliguria) i.e.- as less as 400 ml per day in adults. AKI could be the result of variety of causes, generally classified as pre-renal, intrinsic and post-renal. Dialysis may be necessary, while the identification and treatment of AKI is progressed.

Ques. 3 What is Chronic kidney Disease?

Ans. Often, chronic kidney disease is diagnosed as a result of screening of people known to be at risk of kidney problems, such as those with high blood pressure or diabetes and those with a blood relative when it leads to one of its recognized complications, such as cardiovascular disease, anemia or pericarditis (inflammation of the of the pericardium – the fibrous sac surrounding the heart). Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) develops slowly and show few initial symptoms. The affects of CKD are normally irreversible. It is a progressive loss of renal function over a period of months or year. The symptoms of worsening kidney function are unspecific, and might include feeling generally unwell and experiencing a reduced appetite.

Acute-on-Chronic Renal Failure (AoCRF)
Acute-on-Chronic Renal Failure (AoCRF) It is a combination of Acute Kidney Injury alongwith Chronic kidney Disease5 What are the general problems of kidney disease?

Ans. Mild levels of azotaemia may produce little or no symptoms, but if the kidney failure continues then symptoms will become noticeable (if the failure is of sufficient degree to cause symptoms). Renal failure accompanied with noticeable symptoms is termed uremia.

Symptoms of kidney disease can vary from person to person. Some people with kidney disease may not even feel sick, of they may not notice their symptoms. If the kidney function fails, there is abnormal rise in the levels of nitrogen-containing compounds, such as urea, creatinine and other nitrogen rich compounds in the blood. This condition is termed as azotemia.

Ques. 6 What are the symptoms of kidney failure?

Ans. The symptoms of kidney failure
(1) More frequent urination, or in greater amount than usual, with pale urine
(2) High levels of urea in the blood, which can result in
(3) Pressure, or difficulty urinating
(4) Vomiting and/or diarrhea, which may lead to dehydration
(5) Nausea
(6) Weight loss
(7) Nocturnal urination
(8) Foamy of bubbly urine
(9) Muscle cramps (caused by low levels of calcium which can cause hypocalcaemia)
(10) A build up of potassium in the blood that diseased kidneys cannot filter out (called hyperkalemia) may cause:
(11) Less frequent urination, or in smaller amounts than usual, with dark coloured urine
(12) Blood in the urine
(13) Polycystic kidney disease, which causes large, fluid-filled cysts on the kidneys and sometimes the liver, can cause: Pain in the back or side.
(14) A build up of phosphates in the blood that diseased kidneys cannot filter out may cause:
(15) Itching
(16) Bone damage
(17) Fluid volume overload – symptoms may range from mild edema to life-threatening pulmonary edema pressure is increased due to fluid overload and production of vasoactive hormones, increasing one’s risk of developing hypertension and/or suffering from congestive heart failure.
(18) Abnormal heart rhythms
(19) Muscle paralysis
(20) Failure of kidneys to remove excess fluid may cause:
(21) Swelling of the legs, ankles, feet, face and/or hands
(22) Shortness of breath due to extra fluid on the lungs (may also be caused by anemia)
(23) Healthy kidneys produce the hormone erythropoietin which stimulates the bone marrow to make oxygen-carrying red blood cells. As the kidneys fail they produce less erythropoietin resulting in fewer red blood cells being produced to replace the natural breakdown of old red blood cells. As a result the blood carries less haemoglobin which is known as anemia. This can result in:
(24) Memory Problems
(25) Difficulty Concentrating
(26) Feeling tired and/or weak
(27) Dizziness
(28) Low Blood Pressure
(29) People with chronic kidney disease suffer from accelerated atherosclerosis and are more likely to develop cardiovascular disease than the general population. Patients afflicted with chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease tend to have significantly worse prognoses than those suffering only from the latter.
(30) Metabolic acidosis, due to accumulation of sulfates, phosphates, uric acid etc. This may cause altered enzyme activity by excess acid acting on enzymes and also increased excitability of cardiac and neuronal membranes by the promotion of hyperkalemia due to excess acid (acidemia).

Other Symptoms include:
(1) Darkening of Skin
(2) Difficulty Sleeping
(3) Appetite loss, a bad taste in the mouth
Suggestion
The kidney failure results in a chemical misbalance in the body, which can be the cause of numerous diseases and organ failure. Although every organ of the body is equally important but the role of kidney is of utmost importance because it filters the entire toxins generated in the human body. Human body is the biggest chemistry lab; every action/reaction is the result of some or the other chemical reaction.

Ques. 7 Which medicines are good for kidney in Homoeopathy?
Ans. Berberis Vulgaris works good but should be used symptomatically.

Prepared by : Dr Pooja Rai, Bhopal.

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Comments

0 # Nishith 2018-04-23
Hii can you plz tell me, Which fluids can cause or spread syphilis infection, alos give me the list of good gynec in Shimoga?
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0 # Dr. Pooja 2018-04-24
Infection from semen, blood or lactation milk can occur and cause syphilis, Infection from blood syringes is very common, Infected mothers can transmit it through their milk also, consult with good Gynecologist in Shimoga .
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0 # Vivaan 2018-04-23
Hii, I am from Namsai, can you plz tell me What is the mode of infection in syphilis ?
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0 # Dr. Naresh 2018-04-24
90 percent cases in syphilis are transmitted through unsafe sexual contacts, Mothers can also pass infection through breast milk, you can also consult with good Gynecologist in Namsai .
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0 # Himmat 2018-04-15
Hello I am from Balangir, My neighbour has been feeling redness and burning in urethral organs, can it be a disease, should she visit gynec?
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0 # Dr. Naresh 2018-04-16
It can be a simple infection also and a disease also, If after the examination, the presence of gram negative bacteria is seen ,gonorrhoea infection can be thought of, she should visit good women's specialist- find list of Gynecologist in Balangir
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0 # Himmat 2018-04-06
Hello, plz let me know Can gonorrhoea be transmitted to small children, should I consult with good maternity doctor in Nilgiris
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0 # Dr. Pooja 2018-04-07
yes,this can be transmitted by infected mothers to children, In this case it is called as ophthalmia neonatorum, find list of good doctor-.Obstetrician in Nilgiris
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0 # Aarush 2018-03-26
Hii, I am from Chhindwara, plz let me know What is gonorrhoea ?
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0 # Dr. Naresh 2018-03-27
Hello, Gonorrhoea is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the Neisseria gonorrhoea,This disease is caused in the genitourinary tracts, for more details plz visit good gynec in Chhindwara, find list of Gynecologist in Chhindwara
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0 # Aarush 2018-03-26
Hii, plz tell me,Which tests can confirm syphilis in primary stage, also suggest name of good maternity hospitals in Kurnool ?
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0 # Dr. Pooja 2018-03-27
During the primary stage,DG illumination tests are very helpful, find good maternity hospitals-Susheela Netralaya and Maternity Hospital ; Suseela Netralaya and Maternity Hospital.
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0 # Jayesh Older than three months
My friend has been diagnosed with gonorrhoea, Please tell which tests will be advisable, also suggest gynec in Arwal ?
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0 # Dr. Naresh Older than three months
VDRL tests should be done every month for 3 consecutive months for detecting syphilis as well as other sexually transmitted diseases,These tests should be conducted at proper times, find good Gynecologist in Arwal
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0 # Aayush Older than three months
Hii, I am from Firozabad, plz let me know What is gonorrhoea ?
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0 # Dr. Naresh Older than three months
Hello, Gonorrhoea is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the Neisseria gonorrhoea,This disease is caused in the genitourinary tracts, for more details plz visit good gynec in Firozabad, find list of Gynecologist in Firozabad
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0 # Aarush Older than three months
Hello, plz let me know What is menarche, I want to consult with gynec in Bangalore, plz suggest ?
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0 # Dr. Naresh Older than three months
the process of starting of the menstrual cycle in females is called menarche, plz find good Gynecologist in Bangalore.
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0 # Rohan Older than three months
Hello, I am from Raigad, PLz suggest some biochemic remedies for gonorrhoea .
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0 # Dr. Naresh Older than three months
Kali Mur, Natrum Mur, Natrum Sulph, and silicea are few important biochemic emedies in homoeopathy which can be used safely in this case, you can also take advise from gynecologist given here-Gynecologist in Raigad.
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