Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) on kidney-failure | HospitalKhoj

KIDNEY FAILURE

KIDNEY FAILURE

Ques. 1 What is kidney failure?

Ans. Kidney failure or Renal failure is a situation in which the kidneys fail to function adequately. Elevated serum Creatinine is used as a measure of Kidney failure. It is an indicative of the failure of filtering ability of the kidneys.

The typical human reference ranges for Serum Creatinine are 0.5 to 1.0 mg/dL for women and 0.7 to 1.2 mg/dL for men. While a baseline Serum Creatinine of 2.0 mg/dL may indicate normal kidney function in a male body builder, a serum creatinine of 1.2 mg/dL can indicate significant renal disease in an elderly female.

Serum Creatinine is produced naturally by the body, which is the breakdown of Creatine Phosphate found in muscles. Thus, a person with higher muscle mass may have higher Serum Creatinine levels without any kidney failure, whereas a person with low muscle mass may be suffering with the Kidney failure even at low levels of Serum Cretinine.
Broadly there are three types of Kidney/Renal failures –
(1) Acute-on-Chronic Renal Failure (AoCRF)
(2) Acute Kidney Injury (AKI)
(3) Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)

Ques. 2 Describe Acute kidney failure.

Ans. Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) was also known as Acute Renal Failure (ARF) earlier.

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It is a rapid progressive loss of renal function, which can be characterized by decreased urine production (Oliguria) i.e.- as less as 400 ml per day in adults. AKI could be the result of variety of causes, generally classified as pre-renal, intrinsic and post-renal. Dialysis may be necessary, while the identification and treatment of AKI is progressed.

Ques. 3 What is Chronic kidney Disease?

Ans. Often, chronic kidney disease is diagnosed as a result of screening of people known to be at risk of kidney problems, such as those with high blood pressure or diabetes and those with a blood relative when it leads to one of its recognized complications, such as cardiovascular disease, anemia or pericarditis (inflammation of the of the pericardium – the fibrous sac surrounding the heart). Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) develops slowly and show few initial symptoms. The affects of CKD are normally irreversible. It is a progressive loss of renal function over a period of months or year. The symptoms of worsening kidney function are unspecific, and might include feeling generally unwell and experiencing a reduced appetite.

Acute-on-Chronic Renal Failure (AoCRF)
Acute-on-Chronic Renal Failure (AoCRF) It is a combination of Acute Kidney Injury alongwith Chronic kidney Disease5 What are the general problems of kidney disease?

Ans. Mild levels of azotaemia may produce little or no symptoms, but if the kidney failure continues then symptoms will become noticeable (if the failure is of sufficient degree to cause symptoms). Renal failure accompanied with noticeable symptoms is termed uremia.

Symptoms of kidney disease can vary from person to person. Some people with kidney disease may not even feel sick, of they may not notice their symptoms. If the kidney function fails, there is abnormal rise in the levels of nitrogen-containing compounds, such as urea, creatinine and other nitrogen rich compounds in the blood. This condition is termed as azotemia.

Ques. 6 What are the symptoms of kidney failure?

Ans. The symptoms of kidney failure
(1) More frequent urination, or in greater amount than usual, with pale urine
(2) High levels of urea in the blood, which can result in
(3) Pressure, or difficulty urinating
(4) Vomiting and/or diarrhea, which may lead to dehydration
(5) Nausea
(6) Weight loss
(7) Nocturnal urination
(8) Foamy of bubbly urine
(9) Muscle cramps (caused by low levels of calcium which can cause hypocalcaemia)
(10) A build up of potassium in the blood that diseased kidneys cannot filter out (called hyperkalemia) may cause:
(11) Less frequent urination, or in smaller amounts than usual, with dark coloured urine
(12) Blood in the urine
(13) Polycystic kidney disease, which causes large, fluid-filled cysts on the kidneys and sometimes the liver, can cause: Pain in the back or side.
(14) A build up of phosphates in the blood that diseased kidneys cannot filter out may cause:
(15) Itching
(16) Bone damage
(17) Fluid volume overload – symptoms may range from mild edema to life-threatening pulmonary edema pressure is increased due to fluid overload and production of vasoactive hormones, increasing one’s risk of developing hypertension and/or suffering from congestive heart failure.
(18) Abnormal heart rhythms
(19) Muscle paralysis
(20) Failure of kidneys to remove excess fluid may cause:
(21) Swelling of the legs, ankles, feet, face and/or hands
(22) Shortness of breath due to extra fluid on the lungs (may also be caused by anemia)
(23) Healthy kidneys produce the hormone erythropoietin which stimulates the bone marrow to make oxygen-carrying red blood cells. As the kidneys fail they produce less erythropoietin resulting in fewer red blood cells being produced to replace the natural breakdown of old red blood cells. As a result the blood carries less haemoglobin which is known as anemia. This can result in:
(24) Memory Problems
(25) Difficulty Concentrating
(26) Feeling tired and/or weak
(27) Dizziness
(28) Low Blood Pressure
(29) People with chronic kidney disease suffer from accelerated atherosclerosis and are more likely to develop cardiovascular disease than the general population. Patients afflicted with chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease tend to have significantly worse prognoses than those suffering only from the latter.
(30) Metabolic acidosis, due to accumulation of sulfates, phosphates, uric acid etc. This may cause altered enzyme activity by excess acid acting on enzymes and also increased excitability of cardiac and neuronal membranes by the promotion of hyperkalemia due to excess acid (acidemia).

Other Symptoms include:
(1) Darkening of Skin
(2) Difficulty Sleeping
(3) Appetite loss, a bad taste in the mouth
Suggestion
The kidney failure results in a chemical misbalance in the body, which can be the cause of numerous diseases and organ failure. Although every organ of the body is equally important but the role of kidney is of utmost importance because it filters the entire toxins generated in the human body. Human body is the biggest chemistry lab; every action/reaction is the result of some or the other chemical reaction.

Ques. 7 Which medicines are good for kidney in Homoeopathy?
Ans. Berberis Vulgaris works good but should be used symptomatically.

Prepared by : Dr Pooja Rai, Bhopal.

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Comments

0 # Nishith 2017-09-18
Hello, plz tell me what are venereal diseases, can you plz suggest some good gynecologist in Bhind ?
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0 # Dr. Naresh 2017-09-19
veneral diseases are those which can be spread through sexual contact, The spreading agents can bacteria ,viruses etc, The examples are syphilis and gonorrhoea can be can spread by sexual contact, you can also find list of Gynecologist in Bhind.
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0 # Aayush 2017-09-18
Hello, plz let me know Can gonorrhoea be transmitted to small children, should I consult with good maternity doctor in South Sikkim
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0 # Dr. Naresh 2017-09-19
yes,this can be transmitted by infected mothers to children, In this case it is called as ophthalmia neonatorum, find list of good doctor-.Obstetrician in South Sikkim
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0 # Harikiran 2017-09-11
Hii, I am from Namakkal, I want to know can cigerrete sharing can lead to syphilis ?
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0 # Dr. Naresh 2017-09-12
yes,sharing cigerette,drinking cups,common spoons etc can also lead to syphilis, Generally whenever the fluid of a person who has syphilis is shared,the infection can occur, you should also consult with good Gynecologist in Namakkal
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0 # Priyansh 2017-09-04
Hello I am from Perambalur, My neighbour has been feeling redness and burning in urethral organs, can it be a disease, should she visit gynec?
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0 # Dr. Pooja 2017-09-05
It can be a simple infection also and a disease also, If after the examination, the presence of gram negative bacteria is seen ,gonorrhoea infection can be thought of, she should visit good women's specialist- find list of Gynecologist in Perambalur
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0 # Harikiran 2017-09-04
My friend has been diagnosed with gonorrhoea, Please tell which tests will be advisable, also suggest gynec in Tirunelveli ?
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0 # Dr. Naresh 2017-09-05
VDRL tests should be done every month for 3 consecutive months for detecting syphilis as well as other sexually transmitted diseases,These tests should be conducted at proper times, find good Gynecologist in Tirunelveli
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0 # Lakshay 2017-08-28
Hii, I am from Gopalganj, Please tell that can moisture be responsible for infections ?
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0 # Dr. Pooja 2017-08-29
Hello, good to see that you are from Gopalganj, yes,that is why u must keep your genital organs clean and dry because moisture can favour infections.
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0 # Rohan 2017-08-21
Can gonorrhoea be caused by the infected towels, also provide the list of good gynecologist in Bardhaman?
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0 # Dr. Naresh 2017-08-22
Gonorrhoea can be transmitted by the infected towels, handkerchiefs of the infected person, But most cases are due to sexual contacts, find here list of good Gynecologist in Bardhaman.
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0 # Nishith 2017-07-10
Hii, I am from Numaligarh, Please tell that can moisture be responsible for infections ?
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0 # Dr. Naresh 2017-07-11
Hello, good to see that you are from Numaligarh, yes,that is why u must keep your genital organs clean and dry because moisture can favour infections.
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0 # Vivaan 2017-07-10
Hello, plz let me know Can gonorrhoea be transmitted to small children, should I consult with good maternity doctor in Kottayam
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0 # Dr. Pooja 2017-07-11
yes,this can be transmitted by infected mothers to children, In this case it is called as ophthalmia neonatorum, find list of good doctor-.Obstetrician in Kottayam
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0 # Jayesh 2017-07-05
Hello I am from Guntur, My neighbour has been feeling redness and burning in urethral organs, can it be a disease, should she visit gynec?
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0 # Dr. Naresh 2017-07-06
It can be a simple infection also and a disease also, If after the examination, the presence of gram negative bacteria is seen ,gonorrhoea infection can be thought of, she should visit good women's specialist- find list of Gynecologist in Guntur
Reply | Reply with quote | Quote