MEASLES

measles

Qst1. What is measles?
Ans. Measles is a disease most common in childhood and can be serious is produced by a virus. Its first symptoms occur about 10 days after becoming exposed.

Qst2. What are the symptoms of measles?
Ans. Measles symptoms are: a cold, coughing, fever, jaded and swollen eyes. There may be diarrhea, also. After this, some white sore (aphthras) in the mouth, throat & nose. Later, some small red dots like a rash appear behind the ears, on neck, then on the face, body, arms and legs. There temperature and discomfort until these small red dots appear.

Qst.3. What suggestions can be given to a measles patient?
Ans. Consult your physician immediately. In addition to getting plenty of and having good diet, the person with measles should remain in bed and drink lot of liquids and juices. This will take away any itching and burning. If you have temperatures see topic on fever to find a way to lower it. In the case of an earache, use one or two drops of good ear drops as suggested by Physician in each ear. Take Echinacea and garlic to strengthen immune system. Measles may cause complications like pneumonia, meningitis, etc.
Note:- Measles are very contagious so one should be cautious not to be in contact with an infected person.
Measles or roseola is an acute, infectious and highly communicable disease marked by prodromal catarrhal symptoms, koplik's spots & a typical rash.

Qst.4. What are the causes of measles?
Ans. Caused by a filterable virus and may occur in sporadic, endemic or epidemic forms, Age—all ages, Sex—both. The transmission is direct, by means of droplet infection. Incubation period 10 to 14 days,

Qst.5. How many types of measles are there?
Ans. (a) Mild, (b) Severe, viz. toxic, suffocative and haemorrhagic.

Qst.6. What are the clinical features of measles?
Ans. Clinical Features:
(1) Prodromal stage (2 to 4 days)—
i. Sudden onset,
ii. Temperature raised,
iii. Coryza and sneezing,
iv. Hoarseness of voice,
v. Conjunctivitis and photophobia,
vi. Laryngitis,
vii. Koplik's spot, bluish white spots appear in the mucous membrane of mouth, surrounded by a red areola, rough appearance.
(2) Eruptive stage (4 to 7 days)—(usually appears on the 4th day)—Skin rash appears first on face, neck, behind ears, forehead and progressing above downward, all over body, light pink colour (pin head in size) firstly macular, then maculopapular.

(3) Stage of defervescence—
i. Temperature falls by crisis or lysis,
ii. Rash fades from the face downwards in the sane sequence as its appearance and leaves brown staining.

Qst.7. Which investigations and complications can be seen in infectious diseases?
Ans.
i. Blood shows lecopenia or the count may be normal, leucocytosis may be seen with secondary infection,
ii. Complement fixation reaction.
iii. Virus can be isolated from pharyngeal washings, blood and urine,
iv. Nasal secretion may show giant cells in the pre-eruptive stage.
Complications:
i. Conjunctivitis, blepharitis or corneal ulceration.
ii. Bronchopnemonia (most important),
iii. Acute gastroenteritis,
iv. Endocarditis or pericarditis etc.
v. Inflammation of the brain and spinal cord,
vi. Otitis media and mastoiditis.
vii. Oedema glottis, laryngitis.
viii. Stornatitis,

Qst.8. What are the prophylaxis, differential diagnosis and prognosis of measles?
Ans. Prophylaxis: ¬Measles vaccine has been prepared from Edmonston strain of measles virus which is very effective.
Differential Diagnosis: (a) Rubella, (b) Typhoid, (c) Serum sickness, Drug rash.
Prognosis ; Mostly favourable, unless children under 3 years of age are involved in serious complications of broncho-pneumonia, severe cerebral and heart diseases.

Qst.9. What is the advisable treatment for measles?
Ans. Treatment :
i. Liquid diet containing milk and glucose or malted milk.
ii. All the clothes. linen, utensils etc. are disinfected at the end of the illness.
iii. Attention to oral hygiene and eyes should be patched with warm boric acid lotion ( 2-3 times daily ) and vaseline put on the lids, daily tepid sponging.
iv. Homoeopathic remedies.
v. Bed rest till 2-3 days after the temperature is normal,

Qst10. Which Homoeopathic remedies are advisable?
Ans. The Homoeopathic remedies which are advisable are :
1) GELSEMIUM — Eruptive stage ; chilliness, watery discharge from nose, excoriating wings of nose and upper lip ; hoarseness, rawness, of chest, with cough ; retroceding measles. with livid spots ; fever heat, with drowsiness ; dull pains in head, back & limbs ; pulse full & soft, tongue has a moist white fur, drowsy state and suffused face.
2) APIS MELL — Confluent eruption and oedematous swelling of the skin ; greatly inflamed eyes ; croupy cough violent cough, similar to whooping cough ; catarrh of bowels with diarrhoea.
3) BELLADONNA — Rash bright red ; skin hot and dry, with throbbing headache. Dry, spasmodic cough. Constant drowsiness and moaning during sleep.

Qst11. Which Biochemic Remedies are advisable?
Ans. Biochemic remedies :—
1) KALI MUR.—Second stage of measles, hoarse cough, glandular swelling etc. The tongue is coated white or grayish white, After-effects of measles ; deafness ; swelling in throat ; diarrhoea, loose, light-coloured stools.
2) KALI SULPH—When the rash is suddenly suppressed, the skin is harsh and dry.
3) FERRUM PHOS.—In all stages of measles, for the inflammatory conditions, fever, redness of eyes, painful congestion of chest, etc. Especially suited to first stage of measles.

Qst.12. What are German measles?
Ans. German measles is less infectious than measles. It spreads by droplet infection. The disease is severe in adults than in children. The causative organism is Rubella virus. Incubation period is about 2 to 3 weeks.

Qst.13. What are the clinical features of German measles?
Ans. Clinical Features:
1) Mild constitutional symptoms, viz. fever (99° to 101°F) ; headache, aches all over body, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, weakness, lassitude etc.
2) Rash appears on second day. In children the disease is mild and rash may be first indication. Pink macules appear first behind the ears and on forehead, spread rapidly to the trunk and the limbs.
3) Generalised lymphandenopathy at times.
4) Stiffness in the neck ; tender and enlarged posterior cervical lymph glands.
5) Complications— The disease during first trimester of pregnancy produces malformations in foetus. Sometimes purpura, encephalomyelitis, arthritis etc.
6) The whole illness ends in 2 to 3 days. There is no staining or desquamation of skin.

Qst.14. What is the treatment?
Ans. Treatment is entirely symptomatic, no treatment is usually needed except in pregnant women (first trimester who should be administered 750 mg. human gamma-globulin.

 

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