Ques. 1 What is Pyrexia?
Ans. Temperature of body is the balance between heat production by means of the general metabolism of various bodily functions and heat loss through the skin, lungs and excretions. The heat regulating centre in brain is responsible for the constant level of body temperature in health.
In infections, fever is one of most constant and reliable signs. It is probably caused by the toxic produced by infecting organism. When the body temperature is raised above the normal the condition is known as fever or pyrexia.
In health body temperature remains very constant around 98.4°F (36.9°C), although a slight swing of 0.5°F (0.3°C) above or below this figure may be normal in some people.
Ques. 2 What are the grades of fever?
Ans. Grades of Fever : According to the height of the fever, various grades are often spoken of, such as slight or moderate for 99° to 101°F (37.2° to 38.3°C) and severe for any fever between 102° and 104°F.
Subnormal Temperature : Persisting below 97°F. Found in – Cachexia from any cause, cardiac failure, congenital heart disease, cerebral haemorrhage (excepting pontine), collapse as in syncope with cold sweats, collapse stage of cholera, haemorrhage, acute peritonitis and intestinal obstruction etc. Coma due to opium, Convalescence from prolonged fever, sub-thyroid condition (e.g. myxoedema) etc.
A temperature of 105°F (40.5°C) or over is called as Hyperpyrexia. Commonly due to (i) heat stroke. (ii) pontine haemorrhage. (iii) rheumatic fever. (iv) malignant endo-carditis. (v) cerebro-psinal meningitis. (vi) plague. (vii) lobar pneumonia. (viii) reactionary phase of cholera. (ix) burns. (x) uraemia. (xi) terminal event in many severe illnesses. (xii) hysteria, etc. etc. (xiii) malaria. (xiv) B. coli infection. (xv) typhoid fever.
Ques. 3 What are the types of fever?
Ans. Types of fever :
- Intermittent fever- Temperature fluctuates from normal to above normal from time to time, e.g. malaria, chronic kala-azar, pulmonary T.B., filariasis, liver abscess, leukaemia, leprosy, etc.
- Remittent fever – Considerable fluctuations occur, but temperature in all times above the normal. (One varying 2°F or more in 24 hours, but without return to normal temperature) e.g. sub-tertian malaria, subacute kala-azar, influenza, acute tonsillitis, bronchopneumonia, eruptive fever etc.
- Recurrent fever – A fresh rise of temperature after initial period of pyrexia subsiding, e.g., acute kala-azar, etc.
- Continuous fever – The temperature remains continuously above the normal, (one not varying more than 1.0° to 1.5°F in 24 hourse) e.g, cerebrospinal fever, rheumatic fever, plague, 2nd week of enteric fever, acute kala-azar, military tuberculosis, septicaemia, etc.
Clinical types : (1) Continuous, and (2) Intermittent.
Types of Onset ; (i) Sudden, e.g. influenza, tonsillitis, etc. (ii) Gradual, e.g. tuberculosis and sometimes of typhoid fever. (iii) A fresh rise after the temperature has begun to fall indicates a complication after temperature has begun to fall indicates a complication or a relapse.
Termination of Fever : (i) Crisis – This is sudden abrupt termination of the feveraccompanied by a marked improvement in patient’s condition, e.g. lobar pneumonia. (ii) Lysis- Here the fever gradually subsides over a matter of day, e.g. Typhoid.
Ques. 4 What are the general symptoms of fever?
Ans. General Symptoms and Signs of Fever (Clinical Features) :
- Diminution or loss of appetite, often with nausea.
- Shivering feeling ; in severe cases, rigoris.
- The tongue is usually dry and furred.
- The pulse rate is in most cases above the normal.
- The respirations are usually slightly faster than the normal rate of 18 a minute.
- The output of urine is diminished.
- General malaise.
- Headache and vague pain in the muscles of the limbs and back.
- The skin may be cold to touch in early stage, but later usually becomes hot and dry. As the fever progresses, sweating may be profuse.
Ques. 5 What is the treatment for fever?
Ans. Treatment :
- During hot stage sponge the surface with warm water, and wrap in a clean sheet, and allow patient to dry without being rubbed.
- Homoeopathic remedies.
- Complete bed rest.
- During the cold stage give patient a hot foot bath, or wrap limps to keeps in blankets wring out of hot water, and give hot water to drink.
Ques. 6 Which remedies are useful for fever in Homoeopathy?
Ans. The useful remedies are:-
- CHAMOMILLA – Exceedingly irritable, can scarcely answer a civil question. Thick, white of yellow coating on tongue. Bitter taste. Vomiting food, or slimy substances, Jaundice-like appearance of face.
- CHINA – Chills alternating with, skin cold and blue. Ringing in ears, with dizziness & a feeling as if head was enlarged. Pain in region of liver & spleen, when bending or coughing. Sallow complexion.
- ARNICA – Stupid, apathetic condition, witl: greatest indifference. Tongue dry, with a brown streak in the middle. Confusion of thought, when speaking for gets the word. Sore, bruised feeling all through patient, which compels him to constantly change position. If conscious, he complains of bed being too hard. Involuntary discharges of urine.
- GELSEMIUM – Chill mostly in evening, commencing it hands & feet, or running up & down spine ; it is followed hy gradual & moderate sweat, which always gives relief. The heat is attended with nervous restlessness and mental anxiety. Vertigo, with a sense of intoxication. Sensitive to light or noise. Useful in early stage of Typhoid fever.
- EUPATORIUM PERF – All types, anteponing at 9 a.m. mostly. Bilious & remittent malarial fever, passing over into typhoid state. Despondency with fever ; throbbing headache, from forehead to occiput. Bones ache as if broken with much backache and headache.
- PYROGEN – Severe septicaemia, the bed feels hard, parts laid on feels sore and bruises ; Tongue large flabby, clean smooth as if varnished, . constipation, stool large, black, carrion like, pulse abnormally rapid out of all proportions to temperature.
- ACONITE – Mostly in first stage ; chilliness, with burning heat, esp, in head and face. Profuse lachrymation. Short, dry cough, from tickling in larynx. Fear, anxiety and restlessness. From dry cold winds.
- BAPTISIA – Incipient stage (typhoid). Face dark red, with a besotted expression. Dull, headache, with confusion of ideas. Head feels as if scattered around, patient tosses about to get pieces together. Tongue coated brown, dry, particularly in centre. Offensive breath.
- MERC. SOL. – Influenza ; profuse and very offensive sweat. Very foul mouth ; salivation; from sweating ; or no relief from sweating. Colds extend to chest.
- RHUS TOX – Paroxysm in after part of day. Chill preceded by stretching limbs and yawning. Coldness of some parts of body and heat in other. Perspiration after midnight of towards morning. During hot stage nettle-rash breaks out. Restlessness. Dry, teasing cough before & during chill.
- BRYONIA – Chilliness in bed after lying down; cold sensation and discomfort through the whole body, followed by dry heat, esp. in head and face with vertigo & violent throbbing headache ; shooting, jerking, tearing pains through head, throat, chest & abdomen. Constipation ; dry hard stools. Great thirst for large quantities of water at long interval.
- BELLADONNA – Periodicity not marked. Anteponing quotidian or tertian. Chill begins in both arms, thence over body, without thirst. Chill with bursting headache, dilated pupils. Sweat on the covered parts only, stains linen yellow, disposition to perspire.
Ques. 7 Which Biochemic Remedies are useful?
Ans. Biochemic remedies –
- NATRUM MUR. – It is a chilly remedy. Chill about 10 or 11 A.M. Great thirst throughout all stages. Headache. Fever-blisters around lips. Intermittent fever after abuse of quinine, living in damp regions or newly turned ground. Dry tongue and ulcerated corners of mouth.
- KALI MUR. – Catarrhal fever, great chilliness, the least cold air chills him through, has to sit close to fire to keep warm and is chili. > covered up in bed. Intermittent fever; constipation and thick white fur on the tongue.
- FERRUM PHOS. – All inflammatory fevers: feverishness in all stages. Catarrhal fever with quickened pulse. Intermittent fever with vomiting of food, Synochal fevers. Chill every day at 1 p.m. Dry heat of palms, face, and chest. Copious night sweats.
- NATRUM SULPH. – Intermittent fever; damp moist atmosphere of the seashore. Chill in evening, going off in bed; sweat without thirst, at night, in face, on scrotum, not followed by weakness; in damp wet weather, from living in damp houses or cellars.
- KALI SULPH. – Fever rises in the evening until midnight, then falls again. It assists in promoting perspiration; intermittent fever with yellow. Slimy, tongue. Fevers from blood poisoning, gastric, enteric and typhoid fevers.
- KALI PHOS . – Nervous fevers, high temperature, quick and irregular pulse, nervous excitement or great weakness and depression. Intermittent fever with debilitating, profuse perspiration. The chief remedy in typhoid, gastric and enteric fevers with brown, dry tongue, sleeplessness.