Ques. 1 What is Tetanus?
Ans. Tetanus is a serious wound infection caused by Clostridium Tetani, and anaerobic (spore bearing) organism, characterized by tonic & clonic muscular contraction of body generalized toxaemia.
Nature of injury :
- Post-operative and post-partum tetanus from the unclean vaginal pad.
- Tetenus neonatorum from umbilical cord infection.
- Organism is clostridium Tetani, a gram positive, motile, rod shaped, spore bearing, & produces highly lethal exotoxin. Certain wounds, e.g. penetrating wounds contaminated by soil or with faeces, neglected wounds and burns, and bed sores are liable to tetanus infection.
Ques. 2 What is the pathology of tetanus?
Ans. The exotoxin has two-fold effect on the nervous system :-
Ans. Clinical Features : Incubation period – usually 2 to 21 days.
Prognosis : The lesser the incubation period (and the period of onset) the worse is the prognosis. Tetanus neonatorum, bulbar tetanus & post-operative tetanus are almost always fatal. The extremes of age are dangerous for disease. Mortality in late case is high.
Causes of Death : Lung complications are commonest causes of death, viz. sudden loss of air entry either due to laryngeal spasm or due to vigorous spasm of muscles of respiration, aspiration of pharyngeal contents into lungs and/or lack of ventilation of lungs due to spasms of muscles of respiration.
Laboratory Diagnosis : Culture of wound exudates & material.
Management : Prophylactic –
Ques. 4 What is the treatment of tetanus?
Ans. Treatment –
Homoeopathic remedies :
- Cuprum – Tetanic spasm. Jaws closed, with loss of consciousness, and foam at mouth. Twitching, jerking, or starting during sleep. Stiffness of whole body.
- Cicuta Virosa : Lockjaw and titanic rigidity from injuries inflicted upon head and spinal column. Convulsion, with loss of consciousness. Of limbs and whole body. Body bent backwards. Inability to swallow.
- Hypericum – Tetanus, darting pain in back; contraction of muscles of various parts of body, resultant on injuries to nerves; involving sensory nerves; retention of urine, great nervous depression.
- Stramonium- Tetanus, eye wide open, rolling, squinting, lockjaw, mouth spasmodically closed. Bending of neck backwards. Violent motion of limbs, with stretching and trembling of hands.
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