Ques. 1 What is meant by Vertigo?
Ans. The movement may be rotator or a feeling of displacement in one direction. Vertigo is always accompanied by disturbance of balance which usually causes the patient to seek support and if sudden and severe may throw him to the ground. It often causes a reflex autonomic discharge leading to cold sweating, nausea, vomiting, and sometimes diarrhoea, bradycardia or even syncope.
The term ‘vertigo’ is used by many people to describe a sensation of ‘giddiness’ or ‘dizziness’, these symptoms are common in patients with an anxiety neurosis or with transient general upsets of cerebral function as well as in lesion of vestibular pathways. However, it is considered convenient to restrict the term ‘vertigo’ to description of a subjective feeling of movement of the external environment or of the head.
Ques. 2 What are the common causes of vertigo?
Ans. The most important causes of vertigo are :- (A) Peripheral-
- Ocular causes-(i) refractory errors, (ii) ocular muscle paralysis, (iii) optokinetic causes-motion sickness.
- Vestibular causes – (i) acoustic neuroma, (ii)vestibular neuronitis.
- Aural causes – (i) otitis media, (ii) Menier’s syndrome, (iii) Labyrinthitis, e.g. head injury, mumps, toxic drugs etc.
(B) Central – (i) medullary infarction in brain-stem, (ii) Syringobulbia. (iii) Psychogenic. (iv) Thrombosis of posterior cerebellar artery, (v) basilar artery insufficiency,