Ques: 1 What is Diabetes Insipidus?
Ans : It is a disease which is characterized by the persistent excretion of excessive quantities of very dilute urine (free from sugar) of low specific gravity and also by constant thirst, due to impaired renal conservation of water as a result of defective secretion of ADH hormone.
Ques : 2 What is the Aetiology of Diabetes Insipidus?
Ans : Commonly in males, under 40 year. – (1) Trauma or surgical injury, (2) Idiopathic. (3) Tumours e.g. craniopharyngioma, (4) Disturbances of the posterior lobe, stalk or hypothalamic centres, (5) Infections: typhoid, syphilis, influenza, encephalitis etc.
Ques :3 What are the sign and symptoms of Diabetes Insipidus?
Ans : Symptoms-
- Painless, watery diarrhea may be present, or constipation.
- Interruption of normal daily routine and sleep, by frequent trips for water and
- Polydipsia, preference for cold water.
- Polyuria, daily output of urine usually over 4 liters.
- Subnormal body temperature.
- Tendency to dryness of skin.
- In children, growth may be retarded.
- Asthenia and emaciation in prolonged cases.
Ques: 4 How can one investigate this disease?
And : Diagnosis (Investigations):
- Water deprivation test – usually avoided, being very uncomfortable and same times dangerous, does not raise specific gravity above 1010 after 24 hours water deprivation.
- Blood serology : After I.V. saline infusion, urine volume will not fall and in fact it may rise,
- Pyelography (I.V. or retrograde) shows enlargement of uriters, kidneys, bladder,
- Urine test – increased daily output (over 4 liters), low specific gravity and no sugar.
Differential Diagnosis :
- Psychogenic polydipsia,
- Diabetes mellitus
- Nephrogenic diabetes
Ques : 5 Which are the common allopathic treatment methods in this case?
Ans : Treatment :
- Posterior Pituitary preparations, may, also helpful in some cases.
- The Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus requires no specific treatment, but restriction of salt and thiazide diuretic therapy may be helpful,
- X-ray therapy may be advised in case of tumour,
- Low-protein and low salt diet.
Ques : 6 Which Homoeopathic remedies are useful?
Ans : (1) IODUM – Polyuria, urine bright-yellow, thin watery, constant restlessness can neither sit nor sleep, thirsty, canine hunger, yet loose flesh, anorexia, coldness of hands and feet, rough and dry skin, often containing nodosities heaviness of legs.
(2) ACETIC ACID- Intense thirst, passes large quantities of light-coloured urine, violent pain and sensation of burning in region of chest and stomach, lassitude of limbs, emaciation and prostration, skin dry, pale and waxen, oedema of feet and legs.
(3) TARAXACUM – Frequent, profuse and pale urine. Tongue, covered with a white film, with a sensation of rawness, followed by peeling off of film in patches, leaving dark red, tender, very sensitive spots, thirst, sycotic skin better from walking.
(4) ARSENICUM- Polyuria with bulimy and unquenchable thirst, emaciation and great weakness, watery diarrhea, paleness of skin, disposition to gangrene ; slight motion causes dyspnoea, with palpitation and fainting, dropsy.
Ques : 7 Which Biochemic medicines are advisable?
Ans : Biochemic Remedies –
(1) CAL. PHOS. – Polyuria, with weakness, much thirst, dry mouth and tongue; flabby, sunken abdomen ; craves salt.
(2) NATRUM MUR. – Polyuria ; unquenchable thirst ; emaciation loss of sleep and appetite ; great debility and despondency. Worse on alternate days, hammering type headache.
(3) KALI PHOS – Nervous prostration, weakness, sleeplessness and voracious hunger ; it establishes normal function of medulla oblongata and pneumogastric nerve, with latter acts on the digestion or stomach and on the lungs.