Ques. 1 What is Haemocytometer?
Ans. It is an instrument used in counting blood cells.
Ques. 2 What is the purpose of this Instrument?
Ans. Purpose of the Instrument : It is used for the total count of W.B.C., R.B.C., and Platelets.
Ques. 3 What is total count?
Ans. It is total number of cells per cubic milimetre of blood. Parts of Haemocytometer : (1) W.B.C. pipette. (2) R.B.C. pipette. (3) Counting chamber (with cover slip).
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Counting Chamber : It is double counting chamber with 3 plat forms separated by wide grooves. The whole square of counting chamber is divided into 5 big squares.
In centre, for counting erythrocytes, each big square is divided into 25 small squares & each small square is sub-divided into 16 very small squares.. 4 big squares for leucocyte count are placed at 4 corners of the erythrocyte counting chamber & each big square is sub-divided into 16 small squares.
Ques. 4 Write short note on Blood Grouping.
Ans. Blood Grouping : The blood group of an individual is inherited. The donor is so chosen that his corpuscles are not agglutinated by recipient’s serum. Before giving blood transfusion recipient’s blood should always be grouped and cross-matched.
Human blood contains agglutinogen (antigen) in the red corpuscles and specific agglutinin (antibody) in serum. The corpuscles may contain both ‘A’ and ‘B’ agglutinogen or only ‘A’ or only ‘B’ or no agglutinogen at all. If the corpuscles contain ‘A’ agglutinogen serum will not contain anti- ‘A’ agglutinin to prevent auto-agglutinogen the serum will not contain anti- ‘A’ agglutinin to prevent auto-agglutination. Human blood is grouped by Landsteiner in 1900 into AB, A, B and O groups5 How can we determine blood group?
Ans. Determination of Blood Group :
Few drops of recipient blood are placed in 2 slides containing stock serum of anti-A & anti-B. The slides are rocked for couple of minutes, the results of agglutination are noted –
Patient’s corpuscles (agglutinogen) reaction
Signifies the patient group
(i) Anti-A Serum (Agglutinin)
(ii) No Agglutination
Anti-B serum (Agglutinin)
If patient’s R.B.C. are agglutinated in both slides, the patient belongs to AB group. If stock serum anti-A is agglutinated, he is Group A. If the stock serum of anti-B is agglutinated, he is Group B. If no agglutination in either side, he is Group ‘O’
Rh Factor is determined with Special Tube Technique (or Coomb’s Test).
Cross Matching : The donor’s red cells are directly tested against recipient’s red cells against donor’s serum, no agglutination in either, donor’s blood can be safely transfused.
Complication of Blood Transfusion: (i) Pyrexial reaction. (ii) Allergic and sensitization reactions. (iii) Reactions due to over-transfusion. (iv) Reactions due to transmission of diseases, viz. Hepatitis, AIDS, Malaria, Syphilis, Bacteria etc. (v) Haemolytic reactions.
Ques. 6 How to send the patient’s Blood to the Blood bank for Grouping and Cross Matching?
Ans. About 2 ml. of recipient’s blood is drawn with a syringe, to 10 drops of blood is added to vial containing 2 ml. of 3.8% sodi-citrate solution and the remaining whole blood is put into another vial to clot. These samples are sent to the blood bank after proper labeling. A note is sent if patient had received I.V. dextran immediately before..
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