Ques. 1 Describe the Maternal Physiology in Pregnancy?
Ans. Duration of Pregnancy – The average duration of human pregnancy counting from the first day of the last menstrual period is about 280 days or 10 lunar months or 40 weeks. Ovulation delivery interval is 267 days (as ovulation occurs on 13th or 14th day in 28 days cycle). Expected date of delivery (EDD) is calculated by counting back 3 months and adding 7 days or by counting forward 9 months and 7 days. This rule is know as “Nagele’s Rule”. Pregnancy prolonged beyond 42 weeks is known as post term or prolonged pregnancy.
One third of post term pregnancies are also associated with placental insufficiency and they are called post-maturity.
- OVARIES TUBES – The corpus luteum of pregnancy increases. Ovulation ceases. The atretic follicles show lutein like cells in theca folliculi.
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- BREASTS – After a few months the nipple are larger hypertrophied and erectile, and yellowish thin fluid of colostrums may be expressed. The areola becomes larger pigmented and darker. Sebaceous glands are hypertrophied and from glands of Montgomery. Stimulation and growth of the gland is hormonal. Initially, the women complains of a sense of tenseness and tingling in breasts. After the second month breasts are nodular, and bluish veins appear beneath skin.
- UTERUS – There is an increase in fibrous tissue and elastic tissue – lymphatic, blood vessles and the nerve plexus are hypertrophied. During the first 3 months of pregnancy the growth of the uterus is due to the action of oestrogen and progesterone. From the 3rd month onwards, uterus enlarges by distension which is mainly mechanical due to expanding products of conceptionper day. Length of human lactation varies from 6 to 12 months. During the first 6 months the infant is completely dependent on milk.
- NERVOUS SYSTEM –There is a craving for abonormal articles of diet and this known as pica. Also may be a change in disposition and in patients with psychotic disturbance emotional equilibrium is disturbed. Generally mild mental disturbances are common in pregnancy.
Ques. 2 What is Placenta ? Describe its development & functions.
Ans. This is developed during pregnancy being primarily a chorionic structure and lies implanted on the uterin wall; it is connected with foetus through the umbilical cord; it maintains pregnancy and carries the vital foetal functions.
It is a wonderful organ development as a part of conceptus, is unique for its multiplicity of function inspite of simplicity in structure. It brings enormous changes in mother, mainly through its diverse hormones, to adapt the mother to the foetal needs. It grows along with foetus to maintain adequate channels of oxygen and nutrition, and protects foetus from noxious agents. A well developed healthy placenta ensures to a large extent a healthy foetus.
Ques. 3 What are the functions of placenta?
Ans. The placenta serves the following purposes –
Ques. 4 What are the functions of placenta for the growing child in the mother’s womb?
Ans. Placenta thus (i) maintains pregnancy and (ii) causes maternal changes for purpose of reproduction. Placenta is considered important component of the “foeto-placental unit”. (iii) serves vital foetal functions,
Development – The growing embryo in compact layer of the deciduas throws out the chorionic buds on all sides. Those towards deciduas capsularis, the chorion leave atrophy mainly due to lack of nutrition. Those in contact & attached to deciduas basalis, chorion frondosum proliferate, multiply & form the placenta. The formation of placenta occurs during 6th to 12th weeks of pregnancy. By 4th months, placenta has attained its definite form; thereafter it continues to grow throughout pregnancy..
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