Matters of the heart

Matters of the heart

Dr. Jitendra Singh Makkar

A seminar was held at Maharana Pratap auditorium, Jaipur, on August 2nd 2016, hosted by Dr. Jitendra Singh Makkar, senior international cardiologist & electropysiologist, & director of cardiology at Eternal Heart Care Centre, Jaipur. He delivered a lecture on issues related to heart diseases and its care.

The heart is one of the most important organs in the entire human body. It is really looks small process like a pump, composed of muscle which pumps blood throughout the body, beating approximately 72 times per minute of our lives, but without this no human body can function.

The treatment of heart diseases includes many tests, by which the status of the disease and further actions are to be decided.

An angiography is a test that takes X-ray pictures of the coronary arteries and the vessels that supply blood to the heart. During an angiography, a special dye is released into the coronary arteries from a catheter (special tube) inserted in a blood vessel. This dye makes the blood vessels visible when an X-ray is taken.

The FFR (Fractional Flow Reserve) test is held after the angiography to check whether the stent is required or not.

It is a guide wire-based procedure that can accurately measure blood pressure and flow through a specific part of the coronary artery. FFR is done through a standard diagnostic catheter at the time of a coronary angiogram (a.k.a. cardiac catheterization).

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The measurement of Fractional Flow Reserve has been shown useful in assessing whether or not to perform angioplasty or stenting on "intermediate" blockages.

Stent - A stent is a small mesh tube that's used to treat narrow or weak arteries. Arteries are blood vessels that carry blood away from your heart to other parts of your body.

Reason for heart diseases:-

1. Smoking

Smoking harms nearly every organ in the body, including the heart, blood vessels, lungs, eyes, mouth, reproductive organs, bones, bladder, and digestive organs. This article focuses on how smoking affects the heart and blood vessels. To reduce the risk of sudden cardiac death, smoking should be stopped.

. High blood pressure:-

Your heart pumps blood to your entire body. Uncontrolled high blood pressure can damage your heart in a number of ways, such as: Coronary artery disease, Enlarged left heart, Heart failure

Normal blood pressure:-

Age before 60- 140/90

Age after 60- 150/90

3. Heavy consumption of alcohol

Drinking more than the lower risk guidelines regularly and over a long period of time can increase your risk of developing heart disease.

4. Stress causes heart diseases

The stress itself can be a problemSmoking

The stress itself can be a problem. It raises your blood pressure, and it's not good for your body to constantly be exposed to stress hormones. The way you handle stress also matters. If you respond to it in unhealthy ways such as smoking, overeating, or not exercising that makes matters worse. On the other hand, if you exercise, connect with people, and find meaning despite the stress, that makes a difference in your emotions and in your body.

5. High level of cholesterol

When there is too much cholesterol in your blood, it builds up in the walls of your arteries, causing a process called atherosclerosis, a form of heart disease.

HDL (High-density lipoprotein) cholesterol is the well-behaved "good cholesterol." This friendly scavenger cruises the bloodstream. As it does, it removes harmful bad cholesterol from where it doesn't belong. High HDL levels reduce the risk for heart disease -- but low levels increase the risk.

LDL (Low-density lipoprotein) collects in the walls of blood vessels, causing the blockages of atherosclerosis. Higher LDL levels put you at greater risk for a heart attack from a sudden blood clot in an artery narrowed by atherosclerosis.

Normal cholesterol level:-

HDL à Should be more then 40.

LDL à Should be less than 160 and should be approx 100 (in case of patient is suffering from BP, cholesterol, diabetes)

Diet plan:-

For a person with heart disease, proper nutrition is essential to managing symptoms and preventing further complications. Not only can proper diet help slow the artery-clogging process, but when combined with careful lifestyle modification, it may even stop or reverse the narrowing of arteries.

· Serve more vegetables, fruits, whole grains and legumes. These foods may be one of the most powerful strategies in fighting heart disease.

Skipping meals often leads to overeating. By serving five to six mini-meals you can help your loved one control blood sugars, burn fat calories more efficiently and regulate cholesterol levels.

· Required calories after 50yrs is about 800-1000.

For a healthy diet plan a heart patient should follow the below instructions:-

ü Breakfast à Should be heavy

ü Lunch à Should be normal

ü Dinner à Should be lite

First aid for Heart attack:-

Ø A tablet of Dispirin

Ø Mouth to mouth breathing

Ø Pumping at place of heart (at center of chest) about 60-70 times per minute

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