Screening of blood before donation
Blood being the most important item in human body, it is priceless in many counts. Several studies are on to solve different types of issues attached with it. The world is spending a huge amount of money on these researches. A few have come up with the artificial blood. Some are also in the offing. But we will discuss the importance of the screening of blood in this article.
Blood donations' conditions
First among the mandatory conditions of blood donations is no minor can donate blood, without prior permission of their parents or guardian.
The second among the mandatory conditions is a major has to give his or her consent before donating blood.
Many countries have the restrictions of exposing the names of the donors. A few countries associate the blood of the donor, not the name. The full anonymity is maintained in these countries.
Countries like USA have a unique policy. They display the names of the ineligible donors, because these donors can donate blood some time later. The strict restrictions in the USA defers the potential donor’s wish to donate, in the condition the donor does not fulfil some of the conditions there-in. The therapeutic blood donations are always labelled to avoid the contamination for the recipients.
But talking about Australia’s Red Cross Blood Service, they do not have any problem of accepting donated hemochromatosis blood. The reason is hemochromatosis is attached with the genetic disorder of the donor and has no issues of safety for the recipient.
The race and ethnicity do matter in some cases. The reason is some blood is rare in their types and found only in certain ethnic groups. This was the reason; erstwhile blood group was segregated according to the ethnicity, religion and race. However, this practice is no more in vogue.
Testing of blood & the ethics involved
Ethically, the blood of the donor is tested for ensuring the quality of the blood for transfusion. Since the types of blood are A, B, AB, or O is the total groups of blood, the collecting agency labels the blood group. The other factors like screening of antibodies and Rh (D) type remain the notable factors. Some other testing that includes cross matching is an important factor before transfusion.
With a view to determining the presence of any type of STDs, all blood gets tested. The tests are done with high sensitivity and so called as High Sensitivity Screening Test. These tests do not involve any type of actual diagnosis. However, when more specific tests are done on these blood samples, some of them are found to be false positive.
The important point to be noted here is there are rare cases of false negative result after screening. There are some donors who want to get their blood donated to actually know about the contamination of any STD in their blood. These types of donations are always discouraged. The reason is contaminated blood is never used for any type of transfusion.
Autologous is an exceptional type of blood donation, because the donor is informed about the result of the test.
Importance of “O” group
O group is always universal donor, but the only condition is transfusions of red cells. If the case is plasma transfusion, the system gets reversed. In this case AB group becomes the universal type.
This means the other groups cannot be universal donors. They have to match their blood group with donor and recipient. The problem is universally known. Many researches are on to find some new remedies of the problem.