Have you inherited any of these skin diseases-? If yes, you are the right candidate to know more about the diseases and the types
3) Contact Dermatitis
Know about contact dermatitis
Both the terms ‘eczema’ and ‘dermatitis’ are the same in their characteristics, hence either of the terms can be used in this article, but the term ‘dermatitis’ is being used here.
In simple meaning dermatitis is a skin inflammation and as the disease is easily transmittable by contacts, it is known as ‘contact dermatitis’ or ‘contact eczema’. The problem is caused by the environmental issues (not people to people).
Causes of contact dermatitis
Two main groups i.e. allergens and irritants are the two environmental things to cause dermatitis. Irritants include solvents and detergents having the capacity of stripping the skin of natural oil and so causing dermatitis to flare up because of frequent protection less contacts. This skin condition of ‘skin change’ is known as irritating contact dermatitis. The amounts of a person’s exposure to irritants determine the type & severity of contact dermatitis. The persons who are constantly exposed to wet work are the common victims of this dermatitis disease. The persons engaged in catering trades, bars, hairdressing, clothe washing and nursing are the prominent ones to encounter the problem.
Allergens are proactively dominant for developing specific reactions, when a person has to often contact them. Materials like perfumes or preservatives, nickel, rubber etc. used for cosmetics and creams are the prime examples of such allergens. The dermatitis of this type is known as allergic contact dermatitis. Since the problem does not affect everyone, who are involved in to the situation, the reason of its cause is still not universally known or acknowledged.
In some cases, proteins in vegetables and fruit immediately react to some people, leading to itchy skin swelling. The name of this type is contact hives or contact urticarial. The aggravated form of this condition is known as dermatitis. The disease cannot be caught from nor can be spread to someone.
Hereditary linkage of the dermatitis problem
The people who have the tendency to hay fever, eczema and asthma are more easily prone to dermatitis, if compared with others. The problem runs through families.
Symptoms of the problem
The commonest symptom of dermatitis is itching. The problem can be intense, causing the skin to become painful with cracks and also with sores. The problem may develop over the finger backs and affect the hands as the disease progress.
The appearance of dermatitis
Hands, legs, face and arms are the commonest areas of dermatitis problem. When the dermatitis disease flares up, it inflames the surface areas of the skin and makes it scaly as well red. In many cases, tiny water blisters are developed. If these blistered are scratched, they will leak fluid. If the dermatitis is marginally less active, the skin will look dry and thick, in addition to pain and little cracks over the joints.
If your irritating substances, to-which your skin is exposed and how often you are exposed, are known, it will help in diagnosing the disease of irritant contact dermatitis. Specialists use a procedure for diagnosing allergic contact dermatitis in their dermatology departments. The procedure is known as patch testing.
The specialists in dermatology departments put different substances mixed sticky patches on your back. After two days, these patches are taken off by the nurses or doctor in the dermatology department for investigating the places of reactions. The repeat investigation for further reactions is done after a gap of 48 hours.
What is the possibility of curing dermatitis problem?
The cure is possible, provided you reduce your contacts with the irritants. By this way, in most of the cases the problem will improve as well clear of.
If you are tested to be allergic to a particular allergen, after your patch test, you will be advised to avoid that particular allergen for your improvement. In some cases this may be the stepping stone for your complete clearance of the problem of allergic contact dermatitis.
4) Another skin disease known as onychomycosis, i.e. fungal infection in the nails
What is onychomycosis?
Onychomycosis means fungal infection. The disease has other two names, such as onychomycosis, ringworm and tinea unguium. Most of the athletes become the victims of fungi, which is a common foot infection for the athletes. Fungi reside in the keratin of the feet of the athletes. Keratin is the outer layer of our skin. In many cases, the hard keratin that makes the nail can also be affected by the fungi. This infection is known as the fungal infection, affecting nail.
Causes of onychomycosis
‘Dermatophyte fungi’ that is found in the athletes’ feet, spread across and cause fungal nail infection. There are other types of fungi, which do not reside in the athletes’ feet, are known as Candida and Scopulariopsis i.e. moulds. These types usually attack those nails which are already weak. The problem may also cause due to some old injury. Fungal infections in the toe nails are quite common and are much lesser than the fungal infections in the fingernails. Both these types are often found among the elderly people.
Does the problem of onychomycosis run through families?
Although it does not run through families, but it may be seen among the several members of the same family, as it catches from one to other.
Symptoms of the onychomycosis or fungal infection
In the beginning, no symptoms are seen / known. But after some time, the nails become too thick to be pressed inside a shoe. The problem becomes so unbearable that the person finds much difficulty in trimming the nails. The looks of these nails are often embarrassing.
How do the fungal infected nails look?
Any fungi infected nail begins to get affected from its free edge. In due course of time, it spreads up to its base, after affecting the sides of the nails. With the worsening of the condition, the whole nail gets ultimately affected.
The colour of the infected areas will turn to be yellowish or white. They also become crumbly and thickened. The infections, which are less common, appear to be patchy along with the streaks on the surface of the nails. In most of the cases, the little and the big nails are affected. But in case the infection is found in several nails, it will be in the same hand.
How is the diagnosis done for the fungal infections of the nail?
All nail problems are not fungal infections. To exemplify it, after a bacterial infection or in case of psoriasis or an old injury, some changes are seen in the nails. These problems cannot be cured by taking antifungal tablets even for long time. That is why it is very necessary to confirm the problem before starting the treatments. Doctors take out a piece from the affected nail’s crumbly area and send it to the laboratory. The laboratory test will determine about the existence of any fungus. If the diagnosis is done properly, the treatment will also be appropriate. Right treatment may take several weeks for rightly diagnosing the right culture which is extracted from the investigation.
Can the disease fungal infections be cured?
Yes the fungal infections can be cured.
5) Another skin disease, known as Darier's Disease
Description of Darier’s disease
One of the skin conditions, which is rarely inherited is known as Darier’s disease. The disease is diagnosed when a small numbers of watery bumps, brownish in colour, appear on the skin surface.
Causes behind Darier’s disease
Human epidermis or the outer layer of the normal skin’s cells is held together just like cemented bricks standing on each other like a wall. The sticky joints, holding the skin cells together, are not properly made. In this condition the skin may look like lumpy or scaly and sometimes with the blister formations. Neither it is allergic nor is it catching or contagious.
Is the Darer’s disease hereditary?
Yes, some families have this disease from ancestors. This is the reason the disease is also known as “dominant inheritance”. The severity of inheritance is so much that 1 out of 2 children in a family will surely have this problem. Or it can be also said that 50 per cent of the descendants may inherit the problem.
Who are affected by this condition?
Both men and women are equally affected by this problem, but the severity of the problem may vary from family to family. That means although the disease runs through the families but the severity of the problem is never inherited.
What are the signs one can observe in this Darer’s disease?
1) The most common sign is itching
2) The moist areas will smell unpleasantly. The reason is, perhaps, extraordinary number of skin bacteria’s growth in the affected areas
3) Rashes surface coupled with their embarrassing smell
4) Rough topped & light brownish bumps develop on the surface of the skin.
5) Some patients experience unbearable situation with the sun and sunlight
6) Some women experience the worsening condition during their periods
25 per cent of the patients feel the improved conditions with the progression of their age.
How does the Darier’s disease look?
Children and Young people between the ages 6 and 20 are mostly the victims of the Darier’s disease. Severity of the problem is varying. The problem is completely unpredictable. Rashes, at the initial stage, often develop on upper back, neck and chest. Watery bumps may surface at any part of the body, especially under the skin of the breasts. People do not experience much trouble in their face because skin near the hairline and the forehead become the main affected areas.
The blisters split easily and are rather fragile. They appear to be dirty as if the part is bitten. Long red and white lines are obviously visible, running across the length of the nails. Flat warts on the hands’ backside and/or nail changing are often seen in the childhood. These symptoms are well before any other appearances of symptoms of skin changes. Palms of the hands are found with pits and hard skin, while sometimes the same problems are visible on the feet-soles. In some cases, some small spots are found in the mouth, which may cause rough feeling around the roof of the mouth.
Diagnosis of the problem
Once the rash surfaces, diagnosing the Darier’s disease becomes easier. The other indicator is it is hereditary; people become victims of their parent’s disease. For the confirmation, a biopsy is done by taking a small piece of skin (through local anaesthesia) and microscopically examining it.
Is Darier’s disease curable?
No, till date no cure has been identified. However, there are different ways of controlling it.