“Palpitations” of different types about which you must be knowledgeable of---Part--3
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“Palpitations” of different types about which you must be knowledgeable of---Part--3

A) Irregular heartbeat or Cardiac arrhythmia

A patient with irregular heartbeat or cardiac arrhythmia is a physical condition when heart’s electrical activity is slower than normal, faster and so irregular. In this condition the heart beat may be irregular because it is either too slow or too fast. When a heartbeat is too fast or above the convention of 100 beats per minute for an adult, the condition is known as tachycardia. And when the heart rate is too slow, such as 60 per minute, the condition is known as bradycardia.

The fact is all the arrhythmias are not fatal, but some of them can be responsible for serious cardiac disorder and can result in cardiac arrest. Arrhythmias attacks take place in the areas like atrioventricular junction, Atria or upper chambers of the heart and also in the ventricles or the lower chambers of the heart. The attack of arrhythmia is not restricted to any age.

Deaths due to arrhythmia are many in the majority of the western countries. The deaths are reported to be sudden. The example: - the patients die before they can be brought to a hospital.

Symptoms of arrhythmia (of different nature)

Some symptoms of arrhythmia are awareness or occurrence of an abnormal palpitation or heart beat with mere un-comforts. Other atrial fibrillation does not come at all with any symptom; if it comes, it may come with only vague symbols.

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In most of the cases, the patient may be predisposed to the life threatening embolism or stroke.

The patients who use defibrillators / cardiac pacemakers may experience complex arrhythmias due to some technical or mechanical defects or due to wire disturbances.

Another normal phenomenon is sinus arrhythmia. In this condition 2 types of occurrences are there, 1) slowing of the heart rate and 2) alternating mild accelerations, accompanied with total breathing trouble. Children are the most of the victims, but with the progression of the age the problem erodes. For the adults the problem may be seen at the time of breath holding patterns and deep inhaling during meditation.

Another type of arrhythmia is known as Proarrhythmia. In this condition the patient gets rather frequent occurrences of arrhythmia. In many occasions it is due to the precipitations of the arrhythmia therapy. This is a clear indicator that the problem is due to some side effects of some drugs or even due to the arrhythmia medications. In other way, it can be said that the tendency of arrhythmia may give inroads to other arrhythmia. A few of the variants of arrhythmia are minor, so they can be considered as normal arrhythmia. In most of the cases people have the skips of beats, in some cases the extra strong beats can also be experienced by some sufferers, but none of these two are the causes to be worriedHence it is responsible for initiating each heart beat and also setting the rate of the heart.

Any of the parts of the heart that starts the impulse, even before Sino atrial node becomes active, is known as ectopic focus. This is defined as pathological phenomenon. For which a single premature “now & then” beat may be caused. It may also happen that firing of ectopic focus is more often if compared with the Sino atrial node. A sustained abnormal rhythm can be produced by it. An atrioventricular node or an ectopic focus produces rhythms in the atria. These types of dysrhythmias are least dangerous, but there is every possibility that they can bring down the pumping efficiencies of the heart. The reason is heart-muscle’s various parts receive signals with different timing than they usually receive, leading to the poorly coordinated contraction.

The automaticity increasing conditions are inclusive of hypoxia and stimulation in sympathetic nervous system. Because of this the heart system depends on the beginning of the first signal. The rhythm is although rapid but normal, if the node is Sino atrial. But in case it is an ectopic focus, dysrhythmia of different types may ensue.

E) Re-entry

Arrhythmias’ re-entry takes place if an electrical impulse travels in a repeated way through a tight cycle within the heart, instead of moving from one to other end of heart and then stopping. Each of the cardiac cells has the capacity to transmit excitation’s impulses in every direction, but can do such in a short time only.

The impulses of action potential, in normal conditions, get transmitted through heart in a quicker way, making each cell to respond just once. In case of refractory period’s some essential heterogeneity or in case the conduction is significantly slow in some areas; the myocardial cells will fail to activate the fast sodium channel. Because of this, some portion of impulse will reach there late, for which it will be reasonably considered as a new impulse. Here, a time dependant sustained abnormal circuit rhythm will be produced.

Due to the many of the dangerous ventricular tachycardia and paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia, re-entry makes it way. WPW syndromes are different from this type of re-entry circuits, in which actual pathways exists.

Treatments

Normally, Fish oil extracted moega-3 fatty acids work as the protection against arrhythmias, but due to the re-entry of arrhythmias, fish oil can be worsening factor.

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