Why should you be concerned about Parkinson’s disease (PD)?
Parkinson's disease (PD) is categorised under 2nd most commonly found neurodegenerative disorders. The symptoms are rigidity, bradykinesia, posture instability, slowing of movements and resting tremor. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a disorder of the central nervous system.
Causes of the Parkinson’s disease (PD)
The problem arises due to the death of cells in the substantia nigra. In medical term the cells are known as dopamine-generating cells. The causes of the death of these cells are still under investigation. However, this disease is connected with the motor syndrome diseases.
Statistics of the prevalence of the Parkinson’s disease (PD)
As per the crude estimate in the global view, the prevalence rate of PD ranges between 15 and 12500 among 1 lakh of people. Talking about the prevalence of PD in Asian countries, the figure ranges between 15 and 328 among 1 lakh of people. This means the disease is less common in this region of the globe.
Patho-physiology of the Parkinson’s disease (PD)
Due to the uncommon accumulation of alpha-synuclein protein in the brain cells, a small protein, ubiquitin, which is found in all eukaryotic cells, causes the destruction of defective proteins. It can be also said that it causes death for other cells.
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As per the latest research investigations on the disease’s pathogenesis, it is known that due to the dopaminergic neurons’ death a defect takes place in the system of transporting proteins within the two prominent cellular organelles, which is known as the Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). While experimenting on animal model, it has been found that proteins i.e. Rab 1 has the capacity to reverse this defect, affected by the alpha-synuclein.
Classification of Parkinson’s disease (PD)
According to the origin of the disease, Parkinson’s disease (PD) has been divided into 4 sub-types:
Idiopathic or primary
Acquired or secondary
Hereditary Parkinsonism, and the fourth one is
Multiple system degeneration or Parkinson plus syndromes
How does the disease affect a person?
Usually, Parkinson’s disease (PD) is known to be a movement disorder, but it also causes different non-motor types of symptoms such as sleep problems or cognitive difficulties, sensory deficits etc. Talking about the Parkinson plus diseases, they are medically considered as primary parkinsonisms that has additional complications in our body system. The complications encompass progressive supranuclear palsy, multiple system atrophy, dementia with Lewy bodies and corticobasal degeneration.
Distinction between Parkinson’s disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD)
While going in line with the Patho-physiology, in the cases of Alzheimer's disease, tau protein is accumulated by our brain, forming neurofibrillary tangles. However, in the cases of Parkinson’s disease (PD), alpha-synuclein protein is abnormally accumulated in our brain, forming Lewy bodies. Nevertheless, a pathological and clinical overlap is observed between synucleinopathies and tauopathies. The most typical symptoms detected in the patients with the Alzheimer's disease are dementia, which is found in the advanced stage in the patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). The patients with latter category are often found with the neurofibrillary tangles in their brains.
Due to the uncommon accumulation of alpha-synuclein protein in the brain cells, a small protein, ubiquitin, which is found in all eukaryotic cells, causes the destruction of defective proteins. It can be also said that it causes death for other cells. It is impossible to direct the alpha-synuclein-ubiquitin to the proteasome.
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