Factors responsible during fetal programming
The process of fetal development is full of complexities. Many outside influences can be responsible for different stages of developments which have different and complex aspects. This proves that external factors can significantly impact on the development of fetus, because of which many of the changes can last life-long.
The harmful chemicals which are well known for impairing the development of fetus are:
Ø Fetal alcohol syndrome: The syndrome is the result of alcohol consumption during pregnancy. It is not only too much consumption can result in this type of syndrome; even the small amount of consumptions can impair the brain development of the fetus.
Ø Smoking during pregnancy: The overall growth of the fetus and brain development of the fetus can be significantly hampered by the smoking while the baby is in the womb.
Ø Thalidomide drug abuse: Thalidomide drug is very much responsible for disrupting the limb development of the fetus, resulting to deformity and so disability of the new born.
The idea about fetal programming
The fetus in the womb has to pass through different sensitive periods for some specific reasons, so may get impacted by any or many of these specifics. The impact of these specific reasons can permanently effect the fetus and so the child after birth. If the impact is severe, the child after birth will have a lifelong physical condition.
Programming of the fetus can be altered by subtle changes. The example: Altering some maternal stress and nutrition. The effects of these alterations may not show up immediately but will have definite end-result after some time.
The physical structure of the baby is formed within the first few weeks of pregnancy.
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Development of brain does not end with the birth of a child; it goes on developing after the birth. That means the growth of the baby in the womb is very important. In case the baby grows very slowly in the womb, it will affect the baby even after the birth up to his or her old age. The examples are:- the growth development impairment of baby’s heart and kidney will surely disturb the functioning of these organs throughout the life time.
The other causes like lower birth weight can be a vital factor for the baby’s impairment in the later stage. The later stage problem due to lower birth weight is heart disease. Type 2 diabetes, Coronary heart disease, hypertension and stroke origin from the developmental plasticity. The cause behind this problem is under nourishment of the fetus.
Many other causes are there for the growth retardation of the baby in the womb. The nutrition of the mother is one of them
The statements are:
· I am feeling unhappy because I had my difficulty in sleeping
· when things went wrong , I have gone on blaming myself unnecessarily
· I had thought of harming myself due to some depressions
· I have been feeling really unhappy that made me to cry
Connection between stress and body
2 types of effects are there that stress causes on our body. They are:
1) Response to stress: This is experienced to be immediate. The condition is known as “flight or fight”. This type of type of response can occur within seconds. Noradrenaline and Adrenaline, which are otherwise known as norepinephrine and epinephrine. These types of responses prepare our body for taking immediate action, if there is any emergency situation.
2) The response no 2 is more gradual. It takes almost 20 minutes or so for our body to release a hormone, which is known to be cortisol. This hormone helps us to withstand on-going mental and physical stresses.
But there is a big complexity about one’s feelings and the responses of these 2 systems. Even there are occasions when we may become stressed without the presence of these 2 factors (adrenaline or cortisol).
A fertilized egg takes almost 38 weeks to become a full term baby. During this period, many amazing factors are attached with while proceeding towards the full growth of the baby. The changes take place over this period are:
i) During the course of pregnancy, barring vision, all the senses of fetus will be naturally stimulated
ii) As early as 8 weeks, the fetus can detect stimuli, especially in the cases of touch.
iii) The fetus gets the environment of no sensory deprivation
iv) Older the fetus it starts learning.
v) It starts recognising some tastes or sounds. These indications grow fully during the life after birth
Note: - Pregnancy is measured from the beginning of the last period, but the time of fertilization of the egg is counted 14 days after the pregnancy measurement. Even though pregnancy is known to last for 40 weeks of gestation, the first 2 weeks are actually without any action or development.
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