Hemoglobin is the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen from lungs to the other parts of the body and returns carbon dioxide from the tissues back to the lungs.
Hemoglobin content in the human body:
· Hemoglobin is made up of four protein molecules that are connected together.
· Normal adult hemoglobin molecule contains two alpha-globulin chains and two beta-globulin chains.
· In fetuses and infants, beta chains are not common and the hemoglobin molecule is made up of two alpha chains and two gamma chains.
· As the infant grows, the gamma chains are gradually replaced by beta chains, forming the adult hemoglobin structure.
· Hemoglobin also plays an important role in maintaining the shape of the red blood cells.
How Hemoglobin is measured?
· Hemoglobin is usually measured as a part of the complete blood count (CBC) from a blood sample.
· Measuring of hemoglobin is presently by automated machines designed to perform different tests on blood.
· Free hemoglobin is exposed to chemical containing cyanide which binds tightly with the hemoglobin molecule to form cyanomethemoglobin.
Normal Hemoglobin Values depends on the age & gender of the person:
· Newborns: 17 to 22gm/dL
· One week of age: 15 to 20gm/dL
· One month of age: 11 to 15gm.dL
· Children: 11 to 13gm/dL
· Adult Males: 14 to 18gm/dL
· Adult Females: 12 to 16gm/dL
· Men after Middle Age : 12.4 to 14.9gm/dL
· Women after Middle Age: 11.7 to 13.8gm/dL
Causes of Low Hemoglobin Level:
Low hemoglobin level is referred to as anemia or low red blood count. There are many reasons for anemia. Below are the common causes of anemia:
· Loss of Blood due to severe injury, bleeding, surgery etc.
· Nutritional Deficiency due to less iron content, vitamin B12 etc.
· Abnormal hemoglobin structure
· Bone Marrow Problems by replacement of bone marrow because of cancer.
· Destruction of red blood cell synthesis by chemotherapy drugs, kidney failure etc.
· Pregnant women’s are advised to avoid both high and low hemoglobin levels to avoid increasing risks of stillbirths due to high hemoglobin and premature birth or low-birth-weight baby due to low hemoglobin.
Causes of High Hemoglobin Level:
More than normal hemoglobin levels can be seen in people living at high altitudes and in people who smoke. Below are some of the causes due to high hemoglobin level is:
· Advanced Lung Disease
· Disorder of the bone marrow known as polycythemia.
· Misuse of drug Erythroprotein by athletes for increasing the amount of oxygen available to the body by chemically raising the production of red blood cells.
About Sickle Cell Disease:
Sickle cell disease is a genetic condition in which the quality of hemoglobin is defective. Sickle cells having a shorter life span of 10 to 20days than the normal red blood cells are having a life span of 120 days. Below are some of the symptoms of sickle cell anemia:
· Chest pain
· Bone pain
· Body aches and Pain
· Breathing problem
· Ulceration of Skin
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