Pneumococcal disease

Pneumococcal disease is an infection caused by the Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) bacterium, also known as pneumococcus.  Streptococcus pneumoniae cause infection of the blood (bacteraemia/sepsis), middle-ear infection (otitis media), or bacterial meningitis. Sometimes cause Pneumonia.

According to World Health Organization (WHO):

“Pneumococcal disease is the world’s number 1 vaccine-preventable cause of death among infants and children younger than 5 years of age.”

Types of Pneumococcal disease:

Invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD)

Invasive pneumococcal disease is more dangerous than any other and it mainly occur in major organ or in blood.

Causes of Invasive Pneumococcal disease:

· Bacteremia (sepsis) – this is bacterial infection of the blood.  Bacteremia means presence of live bacteria in the blood, while sepsis means a blood infection and cause associated with capillary leak, shock and an increased risk of mortality.

· Meningitis – meningitis is inflammation of the meninges. The meninges are the three membranes that cover the brain and the spinal cord.

· Bacteremic pneumonia – It is inflammation of one or both lungs, with pneumococcus in the bloodstream.

Non-invasive pneumococcal diseases

This is less severe than invasive pneumoccal disease. It occurs outside the organs or blood. S. pneumoniaecan starts from the nasopharynx (nose and throat) and grow to the upper and lower respiratory tract.

Causes of Non-invasive pneumococcal diseases:

· Otitis media – It is middle ear infection. Causes are accumulation of fluid in the middle ear, swelling of the eardrum, earache. It is caused when the eardrum is perforated drainage of pus into the ear canal.

· Non-bacteremic pneumonia – It is infection of the lower respiratory tract without detectable spread of organisms to the blood stream

Pneumococcal disease is more serious in:

· Infants

· Less than two years old Children

· Children who have an underlying medical condition which predisposes them to invasive pneumococcal disease.

· People over 65 years of age.

· Children in poor areas of developing countries.

· People having weak immune systems and patient of immunosuppression (e.g. high-dose steroids, chemotherapy), HIV, or AIDS.

· Patients with chronic diseases, such as: Diabetes, Lung disease, Heart disease, Cancer, Kidney disease, Sickle cell disease, Alcoholism, Residents of chronic (long-term) care facilities.

· Patients who have a history of spleen dysfunction or spleen disease.

· Tobacco smokers.

· People who have a cochlear implant (a type of hearing aid).

· Patients with cerebrospinal fluid leak (e.g. due to fractured base of skull)

Symptoms of Pneumococcal Disease:

However symptoms of Pneumococcal disease vary but few are common:

· An elevated body temperature (fever)

· Chills

· Sweat

· Aches and pains

· Headache

· Malaise (generally feeling unwell)

Symptoms of Pneumococcal bacteraemia:

· An elevated body temperature (fever)

· Headache

· Muscular aches and pains

· Rapid heart rate

· Rapid breathing

Symptoms of Pneumococcal meningitis:

· An elevated body temperature (fever)

· Headache

· Nausea

· Vomiting

· Sleepiness

· Irritability

· Stiff neck

· Seizures

· Sometimes coma

Symptoms of Pneumococcal pneumonia

· Cough

· An elevated body temperature (fever)

· Breathing problems, such as shortness of breath (rapid breathing)

· Chest pain

· Other symptoms may include:

· Nausea

· Vomiting

· Headache

· Fatigue (tiredness)

· Muscle aches

Symptoms of Pneumococcal acute otitis media:

· Earache

· An elevated body temperature (fever)

· Vomiting

· Diarrhoea

· Temporary hearing loss

· Ear discharge

Vaccine of Pneumococcal Disease:

There are 90 different known strains of Streptococcus pneumonia are present. All of then can’t be cured with Vaccine but some can be protected. Following are there name

· Vaccines: PCV7, PCV10 and PPS23.

· Prevenar: This protect infection of children especially infants.

· Pneumovax 23: this vaccine is for other age group peoples especially adults.

· Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV): this for child under 2 years of age

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0 # sherin kollannur Older than three months
thanks for valuable information
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