Better you have a deeper knowledge about Membrane Damage
The cause of this disease is damage to the organelles’ membranes by the oligomeric or monomeric or proteins. By inducing membrane curvature, membranes can be damaged by Alpha-synuclein. Due to this, an extensive vesiculation and tabulation are observed, as these proteins get incubated under the system of artificial phospholipid vesicles.
Cell injury & the Mechanisms of Membrane damage
Increased cytosolic Ca2+ and Decreased O2 are the typically found ischemia. However, it can get attached with other types of cell injury. ROS (Reactive oxygen species) are the commonly produced species due to the ischemic tissues’ reperfusions. This is also one of the causes for membrane damage.
Extension of membrane damage
In case selective membrane permeability is lost earlier than normal, it may ultimately lead to overt membrane damage, which is the consistent feature in most of the cases of cell injury. Due to the membrane damage, the plasma membrane, the mitochondria and other cellular membranes get affected.
In the context of ischemic cells, the causes of membrane defects may be due to the actions of series of events. This results to the depletion of ATP and activation of phospholipases due to calcium modulation.
Damage of plasma membrane is also prone to be directly damaged by certain viral proteins, bacterial toxins, different types of chemical & physical agents and lytic complement components. Many biochemical mechanisms may lead to damage of membrane.
Causes of Mitochondrial dysfunction
The decrease in the phospholipid synthesis is due to the defective mitochondrial function, affecting all cellular membranes, not even excluding the mitochondria themselves. In furtherance to this, in case ATP depletes, cytosolic calcium increases on the other hand, resulting into activation of phospholipases and rise in Ca+2 into the mitochondria that results into breaking down of phospholipids. The ultimate results are accumulation of free fatty acids and phospholipids’ depletion from the mitochondria and also from other cellular membranes. Due to these changes, permeability defects are found in mitochondria. To exemplify it, because of transition of mitochondrial permeability, occurrences of loss of membrane phospholipids and progressions of cell injury are the fallouts.
The few other factors of cell injury occur if membrane phospholipids content decreases because of its likelihood of degradation. The reason is the activation of endogenous phospholipases due to upsurge in the cytosolic calcium’s level. The loss of Phospholipid is related to the reduction in the de novo synthesis of phospholipids or the decrease in the ATP-based reacylation.
The after-effects of all the above
Damage in cytoplasmic membrane is the major after-effect of these situations. Influx of ions & fluids and loss of osmotic balance, loss of coenzymes, proteins, enzymes and ribonucleic acids are the ultimate results of the damage to the Plasma membrane. There are also possibilities that metabolites, which are very crucial for the ATP reconstruction, will be leaked by cells. This will further deplete the net intracellular high-value phosphates.
If there is any injury in the lysosomal membranes, there will be likelihood of enzyme-leakages. Lysosomes Lysosomes are constituent of glucosidases, cathepsins, proteases, phosphatases, RNases and DNases.