1) 1) Safety aspects of blood donations, here recipients are focused group
The safety aspects of blood donations involve 2 parties 1) the recipient and 2) the donor.
In most of the cases people become the victims of unsafe sexes with men or women.
Sex between men and men
First to discuss about men having sex with men: These people can donate blood sometimes without any deferral or delay, but in some cases their blood donation may be temporarily deferred. Having discussed this, in some cases these people who sex with men may be permanently deferred or denied blood donations, depending upon the law of the land.
Sex between women and multiple men
These women who have sexes with multiple men may donate blood without any deferral.
A few cases of men who have sexes with female partners and also with men may get temporary deferrals.
Screening of people with multiple sexes both with men and women
The reason of screening the donors are very important because the recipient must not be the victim of unwanted contaminated blood transfusion from a donor. In many countries the cases of MSM that means Men who indulge in Sex activities with Men are restricted to donate blood for the obvious HIV risks.
To cite about UK that excludes Northern part of Ireland, here men who have sex with other men are restricted to donate blood for a year of having sex during the passing year as the MSM. The act was promulgated in the year 2011.
Autologous blood donation and the screening
There are few incidences when Autologous blood donations were screened for the safety point of view. The reason is donor and the recipient is the same person.
Exceptional measures for any pregnant recipient
To have a safest blood donation, donors are asked for dutasteride medication, so that any pregnant woman receives the blood will have safer transmission.
For making sure that the blood being drawn from the donor is fully safe, the donor’s symptoms and signs are thoroughly examined. The probable risks are hepatitis, malaria and HIV infections. The blood collecting agency may ask the questions like donor’s visit to the countries where VCJD (Variant Creutzfeldt - Jakob disease) or malaria are the common features.
Of course the patterns of questions vary from country to country. To exemplify it, in the Quebec area in Poland and some other places defer the blood donors’ cases if they happened to be in UK and so are suspected to be the victims of VCJD (Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease). This disease is the prime matter of suspicion for the people or visitors of UK or has ever blood transfusion in that country.
2. Safety aspects of blood donations, here donors are focused group
Medical history of the donors is always the vital information for the blood collecting agencies. To remain sure of the safest or hazardless blood, the donors are asked some specific questions. The hemoglobin or hematocrit level of the donor is tested for ensuring the loss of blood would not affect the donor as anemic. Most of the cases, the donors fail in these tests, rendering them as unfit for donation. The other tests involving checking the pulse, body temperature and blood pressure are to evaluate the donor’s body conditions. In many cases due to age factors, some of the elderly donors are deferred for blood donations. As far as pregnant donors are concerned, they are mostly deferred, because sufficient studies have not been made on these cases.