Facts you must know about Kidney damage and its symptoms & complications

How many stages of kidney diseases are there?

Five stages of kidney diseases are there:

i) Kidney damage, when the kidney functioning remains normal

ii) Mild stage of the disease when the patient has increased blood pressure and urination at night becomes frequent

iii) Moderate stage. In this stage the affected person may have mild anemia and also high risks of strokes, heart attacks and other diseases

iv) Severe stage. In this stage functioning of kidneys decline, leading to the excessive retention of waste products. In the medical world the condition is known as “uremia”. The patient needs the treatment of peritoneal dialysis or heamo dialysis

v) Kidney failure. In this stage the patient needs kidney transplant or dialysis


The causes of kidney failure

Always it is not possible to know the causes of chronic kidney failure. However, following are found to be the most common cases of kidney diseases:


• Kidney stones

• High blood pressure

• Prostate disease

Preventive measures

If appropriate treatments are taken at the very early stage, the diseases can be slowed down or even stopped in its progression towards kidney failure. Many patients come to know about the disease when the stage is already in very advanced stage. This stage is known as ESRF (end stage renal failure). ESRF, as on date, has no cure. If the dame is done, it cannot be reversed by any mean. Only the hope of dialysis or transplant remains the alternative for the survival of the patient.

Kidney failure and its signs & complications

The prime attack in the kidney disease takes place, is on the ‘nephrons’ the filtering organ in the kidneys. Once the nephrons are weakened, the filtering capacities start loosening. High blood pressure and diabetes are the two major reasons for kidney disease.

The development of kidney disease is very slow. It starts with the piling up of wastes in the blood, while simultaneously the damage starts on the part with the failures of regulatory and excretory functions of the kidney. This means your body is always getting unfiltered blood and remaining with unlearned bowel. When the kidney functions drops to less than 10 percent, it starts signaling to the affected person. Slowly extra fluids and toxic wastes begin to accumulate in the blood. These waste products are known to be creatinine. Creatinine measurement helps the doctor to know about the god or bad condition of your kidney functioning.

Symptoms of kidney failure:

 High blood pressure

 Loss of nausea or appetite and vomiting.

 Odema or the fluid collection in the body's tissues, resulting into swelling along with high blood pressure.

 Fluid in the lungs leads to breathing problem, putting an added pressure on the heart.

 Overall malaise or general ill feeling

 Abnormally light or dark skin

 Anemia

 Fatigue & weakness.

 Muscle cramps.

 Itching, dry skin.

 Sleeping problems or Headaches

 Pain along the side or lower back or middle.

 Getting drowsy or Difficulty concentrating

 Dark colour urine

 Decreased or in some cases no urine output.

 Sudden weight change.

 Easy blood in the stool

 Easy bruising or bleeding


In most of the chronic kidney disease cases, high blood pressure is always present. If blood pressure can be controlled, the extent of damage of kidneys can be delayed. Because of damaged kidneys, enough production of hormones will not be possible that will further worsen and complicate the already damaged kidney functioning. In the absence of proper amount of hormones and vitamin D, our bones will become calcium deficient, which will lead to bone weakness or osteoporosis.

Further to it, because of poor functioning of kidneys, enough red cells will not be carried by the blood circulatory system. This means enough oxygen will not be carried to our body. This will further lead to anaemic problem.

In many cases, kidney damaged/failure patients also become the victim of cardiovascular disease. The fatality is such that many kidney patients’ deaths are due to heart failure.


Ask our Counsellors