The earliest information of an outbreak by hepatitis B virus was produce by Lurman in 1885. 1289 shipyard employees were vaccinated with lymph from other people in Bremen in 1883 because of smallpox wave occurred. Eight months later 191 workers from 1289 vaccinated, suffered from jaundice and were diagnosed as affected from serum hepatitis. Remaining employees who had been immunize with non-identical batches of lymph remained healthy. Lurman’s paper, now consider as a pure example of an epidemiological study, origin of outbreak was impure lymph was proved. Later, in 1909 countless similar epidemic were reported following the introduction of hypodermic needles that were used, and reused, for manage Salvarsan for the nursing of syphilis. Until 1966 the virus was not located. Baruch Blumberg when working at the National Institute of Health (NIH) discovered the Australia antigen (later known to be hepatitis B, or HbSaG) in the blood of locale Australian. In 1947 MacCallum published a research then a virus had been suspected. In 1970 by electron microscopy D. S. Dane and more become aware of the virus particle. The first vaccines were being tested by the early 1980s.

What is Hepatitis B?

It is a contagious disease by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) which infects the liver. During initial infection many did not get any symptoms. Its symptoms last a few weeks and rarely result in death. To begin the symptoms takes 30 to 180 days. 10% and less of infected grow chronic hepatitis B, and with chronic disease cirrhosis and liver cancer immediately grow.

The virus of hepatitis B caused by exposure to infectious blood or body fluids. Infection during the time of birth is the most constant. Hepatitis B is obtained in areas of world where the disease is common. In area where disease is rare intravenous drug use and sex are the most frequent routes of infection. It is more infectious than HIV.


· Fever

· Jaundice

· Light colored stool

· Unexplained tiredness that remain for weeks or months

· Gastrointestinal symptoms (loss of appetite, vomiting, and distaste)

· Abdominal pain

· Frequently there will be no symptoms, and it is only discovered in a blood test


· Get vaccinated.

· Use condoms every time you have sex.

· Wear gloves when touching body secretions of others (bandages/band-aids, tampons, and linens).

· Mask all opens cuts and wounds.

· Do not share razors, toothbrushes, manicuring tools, or pierced earrings with any individual.

· Do not share chewing gum or pre chew food for a baby.

· Use properly sterilized needles for drugs, ear piercing, or tattooing.


The best way to prevent hepatitis B is to be vaccinated.


It is caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV). The virus transferred from person to person through blood, semen or other body fluids.

Common ways through which it transmitted:

· Sexual contact

· Sharing of needles

· Accidental needle sticks

· Mother to child


If hepatitis B virus suspected, doctor will perform a complete physical exam and require blood tests to look at the activity of liver.


Acute hepatitis B does not usually require treatment. While treatment of chronic infection is necessary to reduce the risk of cirrhosis and liver cancer. Chronically contaminated peoples with continuous elevated serum alanine aminotransferase , a marker of liver damage, and HBV DNA levels are candidates for therapy. Treatment lasts for six months to a year, depending upon medication and genotype.

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