Blood donations and many important issues
There are different types of methods for testing blood, but World Health Organization has recommended some of the core tests for the safety and purity of blood for the recipients. The recommendations followed by some countries while many countries do not follow these recommendations
As per the survey report by World Health Organization during 2006, out of 124 countries 56 countries have been found to have not adhered to the basic tests of the donated blood.
The recommendations of World Health Organization regarding blood tests
The recommendations of World Health Organization regarding blood tests are as follows:-
1) Antibody to Hepatitis C
2) Hepatitis B Surface Antigen
3) Serologic test for Syphilis
4) Antibody to HIV, in most of the cases they are subtypes 1 and 2
There are different types of additional tests attached with the TTI (transfusion transmitted infections), but they are subject to the requirements of those areas.
Because these additional tests are cost effective which are not affordable for many that is why these tests are not implemented in those areas.
In spite of various infectious diseases which include West Nile Virus, the additional tests are avoided. In some cases, for detecting a single disease, multiple tests are also done, so that each test can be covered in the same test. To exemplify it, a recently HIV affected person cannot be diagnosed through an antibody test within a short time. This compels some of the blood banks to use HIV nucleic Acid or p 24 antigen tests as the additional test, while carrying on with the basic tests for detecting infected donors in that period.
One more test i.e. Cytomegalovirus is a special type of test. The test is often found to be positive by the doctors, but it is not that much hazardous for the adult healthy persons, but it is harmful for the patients with weak immune system or for the infants.
The types of blood drawing
There are two distinct types of obtaining blood.
1) For obtaining whole blood, the most common and simple procedure is to draw blood from a vein. This fulfills the purpose of a whole blood transfusion.
The typical distinctions between the two types of blood donations are donations of plasma and red cells. Actually in most of the cases, a recipient needs only a specific component for his or her body through transfusions. Normally a donation draws 1 U.S. pint or 450 milliliters of blood. In some cases 500 milliliters of blood is also donated.
Country wise difference:-
· In China, people usually donate 200 milliliters of blood; however a practice of larger amount of blood that is in between 300 and 400 milliliters are becoming a common practice.
· In India, the usual amount of blood donation ranges between 250 and 350 milliliters.
2) In this method, blood is drawn from the donor and gets separated by using a filter or a centrifuge. This follows storing the desired part and towards the further end, the remaining blood is returned to the donor. The process is known as apheresis. For executing this specialized job, a specialized machine is used. The separation of platelets or plasma is done through this process.
Direct transfusion of blood from donor to the recipient (an earlier or age old practice)
During direct blood transmission, blood is not stored; it is pumped directly to the recipient. In most of the cases, blood can be directly transfused from the donor’s vein, but transfusion can also be done from the donor’s arteries.